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Electronic Transistor: The Ultimate FAQ Guide
Today’s guide will answer all questions you have about electronic transistors.
Whether you have questions about FET, BJT, working principle, components, uses or limitations, you will find all answers here.
So, if you want to be an expert in electronic transistors, this is a-must-read guide for you.
Take a look:
- What is an Electronic Transistor?
- What are the Main Functions of Electronic Transistor?
- How does an Electronic Transistor Work?
- What are the Different Types of electronic transistors?
- Are Vacuum Tubes Transistors?
- What are the Advantages of Electronic Transistors?
- What are the Limitations of Electronic Transistors?
- Where are Electronic Transistors used?
- What is the Operating Point in Electronic Transistor?
- What are Electronic Transistor Parameters?
- What are the Operating Regions of an Electronic Transistor?
- What is the Difference between Diode and Electronic Transistor?
- Can an Electronic Transistor Amplify DC?
- Can you test Electronic Transistors in a Circuit?
- What are NPN and PNP Transistors?
- What is the difference between an NPN and PNP transistor?
- What is a BJT?
- How does a Bipolar Transistor Work?
- Why the BJT is called a Current Controlled Device?
- What is the Difference between UJT and BJT?
- What is the Difference Between BJT and FET?
- Why is the FET called a Field Effect Transistor?
- Is a FET a Unipolar Device?
- What are the Types of FET?
- What are the Advantages of FET?
- What are MOSFETS used for?
- What are H Parameters?
- What is a Power Transistor?
- What is a Transistor Gain?
- How do you Bias Electronic Transistor?
- What is the Rating of Electronic Transistor?
What is an Electronic Transistor?
An electronic transistor is a semiconducting device that is used to control electrical signals.
You find a transistor can regulate electrical signals by amplifying or switching them.
The electronic transistor is composed of three terminals that are capable of conducting electrons.
Normally, the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has:
On the other hand, the field effect transistor (FET) consist of:
What are the Main Functions of Electronic Transistor?
You will find many uses for an electronic transistor.
A transistor is used as a voltage detector, an amplifier, a switch, to stabilize voltage, to modulate signal as a rectifier.
However, you find the two major functions of a transistor being their use as an amplifier and as a switch.
As an amplifier, the transistor can magnify electric currents.
This way, a small input of electric current can be converted by a transistor into a large current output.
A good example of where transistors are used is as amplifiers in making hearing aids.
A transistor as a switch refers to its ability to transfer current flows within it.
A small electric current flow in one part can be transferred to the large electric flow of current in another.
How does an Electronic Transistor Work?
There are two major types of transistors that differ in their practical approach: the bipolar junction transistor and the field-effect transistor.
The terminals in a bipolar junction transistor are the base, the emitter, and the collector.
Those in a field-effect transistor are the source, drain, and gate.
The Working of a Bipolar Junction Transistor
Bipolar junction transistor
This transistor is called bipolar because of the two-electron types, positive and negative, involved.
The terminals in electronic transistors are made of semiconducting material.
Semiconductors can be doped to make them more positively charged or more negatively charged.
When semiconductors are more positively charge they are referred to as p-type. When made more negatively charged, they are n-type.
For bipolar junction transistors, you find two different types.
This variation results from the doping of the semiconductors and their configuration.
An NPN transistor has an n-type semiconductor layer, then a p-type terminal followed by another n-type.
A PNP transistor has a p-type layer followed by an n-type semiconductor layer and finally a p-type semiconductor terminal.
For the NPN transistor, the n-type terminals will provide the emitter and the collector. The middle layer, p-type, will be the base.
By default, the emitter and collector are loaded with more electrons while the base is lacking in electrons.
Electron mobility across the terminals is made possible with the current application.
The movement of electrons depends on the connection.
When the base and collector are made positive and the emitter negative, electrons transfer to the base, then the collector.
This above-mentioned process is illustrative of the transistor working as an amplifier.
Also, this is because the small current at the base instigates a large flow of current between the emitter end the collector.
The absence of a flow of current indicates no exchange between the n-type terminals. When you power the base, an augmented current flows.
This is a transistor working as a switch.
The Working of a Field Effect Transistor
Field effect transistor
The source, gate and drain in a field-effect transistor, are identical to the emitter, base and collector in a BJT.
Here, the positively and negatively charged silicon terminals are layered with metal oxide.
In this case, the surplus electrons in the n-type terminals are restricted from entering the p-type terminal.
This is due to the presence of electron pits in the p-type silicon layer.
The application of a positive voltage at the gate establishes an electric field.
This field lets the previously restricted electrons to flow across an insulating layer from the source and into the drain.
Also, this development of the electric field is what you refer to as the field effect.
Ultimately, the current flow and ability to switch the transistor on or off is determined by this field effect.
What are the Different Types of electronic transistors?
Electronic transistors are divided into two major types.
Basically, the two main types of electronic transistors are BJT and FET.
1) The Bipolar Junction Transistor
The bipolar junction transistor is bipolar thanks to the transfer process involving both positively and negatively charged electrons.
The BJT has three terminals of semiconductor material that could be in excess or in short of electrons.
A terminal with excess electrons is called n-type while that with short electron supply is the p-type.
The p-type and n-type configuration provides the basis for differentiating between the two types of bipolar junction transistors.
When configured such that the p-type terminal is between two n-type terminals, it is referred to as an NPN type.
When the n-type is in between it’s a PNP type.
The junction terminal is always the base. The other two form the emitter and the collector.
A bipolar junction transistor can amplify an electric signal from the base to the collector.
For this to happen, the emitter should have more negatively charged electrons than the collector. The base should also be as thin as possible.
Additionally, the emitter and collector junctions should have a voltage bias of inverse proportionality.
2) The Field Effect Transistor
The FET utilizes a generated electric field to influence electron mobility.
You find two types of field-effect transistors here.
The junction field-effect transistor and the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor.
When the field effect transistor was introduced it had the construction of the junction field effect transistor.
With this transistor application of voltage is between the source and gate while current movement is the source to drain.
The metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor has charged silicon terminals layered with metal oxide.
Also, the base equivalent, gate, is covered with insulating material.
Additionally, the voltage applied determines the level of conductivity.
With the field effect transistor, we only have one electron polarity that is transferrable and as such it is unipolar.
The field-effect transistor’s source and drain are analogous to the emitter and collector, and the gate comparable to the base.
The application of a voltage to the channel creates an electric field that manipulates the movement of electrons.
This magnetic field generates what we call the field effect. The field effect influences quantity and direction of the electric field.
Field effect transistors have certain properties that mitigate their use over bipolar junction transistors.
For instance, field effect transistors have low power consumption levels, high input resistance, and less complex manufacturing processes.
Additionally, their ability to function in a wide range of temperatures and simple integration allows it is used in many devices.
Are Vacuum Tubes Transistors?
No, they are not.
Vacuum tubes are not transistors.
However, before the advent of transistors, vacuum tubes were used instead.
Utilizing thermal emission, vacuum tubes, also known as electron tubes, were used for the amplification of electronic signal.
A vacuum tube composed an electrode pair in a vacuum environment that was enclosed in a glass tube.
By applying a potential difference between the electrodes, it was possible to control the flow of electrons.
When the transistor was developed, the vacuum tube took a backseat due to the following reasons:
- You could not use vacuum tube in small devices due to their voluminous size.
Transistors can be made exceptionally small such that millions of them could fit in just a single computer.
- To make a single vacuum tube costs more than a single transistor. Vacuum tubes are therefore associated with high production costs.
- You find transistors have less power consumption levels compared to vacuum tubes. Additionally, vacuum tubes produced a lot of heat which is wasted.
- You cannot use vacuum tubes with small voltage devices.
Vacuum tubes require to be supplied with high voltage power.
- Transistors are highly efficient in small-signal circuits unlike vacuum tubes.
- As they were enclosed in glass, vacuum tubes were easily damaged. Transistors are made of semiconducting materials which make them less predisposed to physical damage.
- Vacuum tubes have low ability in voltage gain, transistors are much better. The impedance of input in vacuum tubes is also prevalent.
What are the Advantages of Electronic Transistors?
While using electronic transistors, you find the following advantages.
- Transistors are small in size allowing usage in small and portable devices.
- You find the manufacture of millions of miniaturized transistors as a single chip is possible.
- Transistors have low sensitivity to mechanical shock.
- You can operate transistors at low voltages.
- Transistors are able to last for a long time as they are not easily damaged.
- Lack of a cathode heater present in vacuum tubes meant lower consumption of power.
- You experience fast switching with transistors.
- Transistors are characterized by high efficiency levels with reduced power loss levels.
What are the Limitations of Electronic Transistors?
While you find several benefits of using the electronic transistor, there are a few drawbacks.
- Vacuum tubes are preferred over transistors due to their higher electron mobility for applications requiring high power and frequency.
- Electronic transistors are reactive to cosmic radiation.
- Transistors are susceptible to electrostatic discharge when carrying out operations.
- You find transistors have a limited heat absorption rate relative to their size.
- Transistors find competitive use in audio devices due to their low harmonic distortion which is well manifested with the vacuum tube.
- Electronic transistors made from silicon eventually fail through old age.
Where are Electronic Transistors used?
You will find many areas of application for the electronic transistor.
A transistor is used as an amplifier, a switch, to stabilize voltage, to modulate signal and even as a rectifier.
These various functions allow transistors to be used in many devices.
- In computing, transistors are used in making memory chips where they store data in the form of charge.
- Transistors find use as signal amplifiers in devices such as mobile phones.
- You find transistors in hearing aids used in the amplification of audio.
- Both digital and analog circuits utilize transistors as a switch.
- Biomedical equipment such as pacemakers utilizes transistors in their architecture.
- Integrated circuits have transistors as their fundamental building blocks.
- Microprocessors in computerized systems are made with numerous transistors.
- In the communication industry transistors are used in radar and intercoms technology due to their high power radiofrequency.
- When transistors are radiation-hardened, they are used in out in space applications such as satellites.
- Gadgets such as calculators, gaming consoles, and visualizers employ transistors for various amplifying and switching roles.
Electronic transistor in charging system
What is the Operating Point in Electronic Transistor?
In an electronic transistor, an operating point is provided by the collector current or the voltage through the collector to emitter.
There has to be a signal absence at the input. The collector current fluctuates with the C-E voltage.
What are Electronic Transistor Parameters?
Electronic transistor parameters are unchanging numerical values related to a particular transistor and helpful in differentiating it from others.
Parameters may be related to the current and voltage differences exhibited by an electronic transistor.
You find parameters have to be easily identifiable through experiments.
Besides, application of these parameters should result in easily constructed circuits for device evaluation.
Some common parameters for electronic transistors are mentioned below.
· Current Amplification Factor
Here you find two amplification factors for current: DC current amplification factor and AC current amplification factor.
DC amplification factor is also known as a static current amplification factor.
AC amplification factor is also referred to as a dynamic current amplification factor.
The collector current to base current ratio gives the DC current amplification factor with an unchanged static signal.
The same ratio gives the AC current amplification factor but in the AC state.
When the frequency is kept low, the two amplification factors for current will be almost similar.
High frequencies result in distinct dissimilarities.
· Maximum Collector Current
This is the maximum current that can be allowed through the collector of a transistor.
If the current through the collector exceeds this value, it changes the current amplification factor.
This upsets standard operation and could result in damage.
· Characteristic Frequency
The characteristic frequency is the transistor frequency where the current amplification factor reduces to one.
While frequency increases the current amplification factor decreases.
This occurs only when the transistor’s working frequency is more than the cutoff frequency.
Transistors can be classified as low frequency transistors, intermediate frequency transistors or high frequency transistors.
High frequency transistors have frequencies from thirty megahertz onwards.
Low frequency transistors are three megahertz and below. In between are intermediate frequency transistors.
· Dissipation Power
Sometimes a transistor parameter is less than the dictated allowable value.
In this instance dissipation power is the maximum power in the dissipation of the collector terminal.
When a transistor is in use, its consumption of power should be less than the dissipation power to prevent overloading.
Transistors can be classified as low power, middle power, or high power using the dissipation power.
Those with a dissipation power of less than one watt are low power.
Middle power transistors are from one watt to five watts. High power transistors have a dissipation power rating of more than five watts.
· Maximum Reverse Voltage
The most in voltage that a transistor is allowed while operating is called maximum reverse voltage.
It comprises other voltages such as the collector-emitter, collector-base, and emitter-base reverse breakdown voltages.
· Maximum Oscillation Frequency
You find the frequency where the gain in power of the transistor is decreased to one gives the maximum oscillation frequency.
High frequency transistors have a maximum oscillation frequency that is less than the cutoff frequency of the common base.
Its characteristic frequency, on the other hand, is more than the cut off frequency of the common base.
What are the Operating Regions of an Electronic Transistor?
You find that a transistor has two operating regions: the cut-off region and the saturation region.
These regions are well illustrated on a transistor’s collector-emitter voltage-current graph.
Operating regions of electronic transistor
1. The Cut-off Region
The conditions at the cut-off region inhibit conductivity and result in the degeneration of layers.
Such conditions include unapplied current at the base and collector, besides a high voltage count ion the collector.
This signifies an “off” state.
The characteristics for this region are:
- Grounding of the input and base at zero voltage.
- The base-emitter voltage is provided at less than 0.7 volts.
- Junctions’ reverse biasing.
- Inhibited collector conductivity.
- Single voltage value for output and C-E.
- Operation of the transistor as an open switch with it being fully off.
2. The Saturation Region
Here, you find that the base current’s maximum allowed current is administered through transistor biasing.
This way, the collector current increases to maxim while the collector-emitter voltage decreased to minimum.
The depletion layer in turn shrinks and the transistor allows the most current to flow through it.
In this state, the transistor is fully on.
Also, this region’s characteristics include:
Besides, the input and base are connected to the input voltage source.
The base-emitter voltage is provided at greater than 0.7 volts.
Both the base-emitter junction and base-collector junction are forward biased.
Current flow through the collector is at a maximum.
The collector-emitter and output voltage are zero.
Operation of the transistor as a closed switch with it being fully on.
What is the Difference between Diode and Electronic Transistor?
A diode is a semiconductor device with two terminals one p-type and the other n-type.
It is typically used for rectification and allows conduction when it is forward biased.
It differs from the electronic transistor in many ways as follows:
- A diode is a two terminals semiconductor device while a transistor has a triple count of terminals.
The terminals in a diode are referenced anode and cathode.
- There is a singular junction presence with a diode and a double junction presence with the electronic transistor.
- With a diode, a single depletion region is formed. Contrarily, there are two depletion regions formed in an electronic transistor.
- While the electronic transistor can perform botch switching and amplification functions, the diode only acts as a switch.
- To operate, one battery is needed for a diode whereas two batteries are needed for the electronic transistor.
Can an Electronic Transistor Amplify DC?
A bipolar junction transistor can amplify a DC signal.
However, the input source should be separate from the amplified signal.
Additionally, the transistor should not be a participant in the replication.
Can you test Electronic Transistors in a Circuit?
Yes, you can.
A circuit is a circular path or loop that allows electricity to flow through for some useful function.
You find circuits with different components in the electron flow path to measure different parameters.
When a single component in a circuit fails, it results in the failure of the circuit too.
A transistor can be placed in a circuit as a switch or amplifier.
A circuit containing transistors could fail in the following ways.
It could be that it is open rather than closed, thus breaking the circuit. It could also short in-circuit restricting the flow of electrons in the circuit.
This way, a test for the transistors can be carried out to establish their correctness.
The following steps can help you establish the state of transistors in a circuit.
- First, the circuit is to be disconnected from its power source before you carry out your test.
Additionally, stored power in the capacitors needs to be drained off.
You can do this by concurrently applying metallic contacts on both the capacitor terminals.
- Identify the leads for the transistor. For unclear identification refer to the device manufacturer.
- Using a digital multimeter, you can set the device to a diode or ohms setting.
By connecting its leads to those of the transistor you can make out the readings.
- Record the measurement values obtained for the base to collector connection and collector to base.
You do this by connecting one lead to the base and the other to the connector. You then interchange the leads for the subsequent opposite reading.
- Repeat the above procedure for measurement values for the base to emitter connection.
The expected measured value for both directions for the base should give either a figure around 600 or infinity respectively.
The measured values for the above tests could indicate a similar value such as zero or infinity for both directions.
This signifies a faulty transistor.
A value of zero in both test instances indicates a shorted transistor. An infinity value on the other hand is indicative of an open transistor diode.
What are NPN and PNP Transistors?
NPN Transistor vs PNP Transistor
They vary due to the semiconductor doping and configuration.
The doping of semiconductors is when they are made more positively or negatively charged.
When a semiconducting material is made with an abundance of electrons, it is regarded as an n-type.
When a surplus of holes is desired, it becomes p-type.
Arranging an n-type, followed by a p-type and then another n-type creates an NPN transistor.
Sandwiching an n-type semiconductor layer between two p-type silicon layers results in a PNP transistor.
The middle layer is always the base.
What is the difference between an NPN and PNP transistor?
You find the following being major differences between the NPN and PNP transistors:
- The NPN transistor is characterized by the movement of electrons during conduction. With the PNP conduction is characterized by the movement of holes.
- The NPN transistor’s emitter is connected to the battery’s negative terminal.
For a PNP transistor, the emitter is connected to the battery’s positive terminal.
- Current flows from the collector to the emitter in an NPN transistor. With a PNP transistor current flow is from the emitter to the collector.
- An NPN transistor is turned on with the entry of electrons into the base.
An entry of holes on the other hand causes turns on the PNP transistor.
- The charge carrier for an NPN transistor is the electrons while that of a PNP transistor is the holes.
Due to this, the NPN transistors have a longer switching time than a PNP transistor.
What is a BJT?
The bipolar junction transistor is bipolar due to the active participation of both majority and minority charge carriers.
The BJT terminals are doped to tinker with their polarity.
This way, you find one with an electron surplus and a mother with majority holes.
The n-type semiconductor material has electrons as the majority charge carrier.
Besides, the p-type semiconductor material has its majority carriers as holes.
Also, the arrangement of these semiconductor layers provides the two BJT types.
They are the NPN transistor and the PNP transistor.
How does a Bipolar Transistor Work?
The emitter is larger than the base and smaller than the collector.
It functions as a charge supplier to the collector through the base.
As such, you find that it is more doped than the other terminals.
The base is the smallest and less doped of the three terminals. This discourages recombination of charge carriers before entry into the collector terminal.
The collector is the largest of the terminals in size.
Its doping level is higher than the base and lower than the emitter terminals.
The size difference is to allow for heat dispersion; generated by the charge carriers in the course of their movement.
To explain the working of a BJT, consider an unbiased NPN transistor.
To be unbiased is to lack a source of voltage outside the system.
When the transistor is unbiased, the charge carriers (read electrons) in excess in the emitter transfer towards the base.
As mentioned, the base is small allowing recombination of only a few electrons with the rest traveling on to the collector.
For an NPN transistor, charge carriers in the emitter are electrons and holes in the collector.
When the electrons from the emitter arrive at the collector they combine with the holes.
Current is produced by the electrons and holes motion as they recombine.
Why the BJT is called a Current Controlled Device?
The BJT is called a current controlled device since the base current determines the emitter to collector current flow.
What is the Difference between UJT and BJT?
You find that both the uni-junction transistor and bipolar junction transistor have three terminals.
However, they differ in the number of junctions with the UJT having one junction and the BJT two junctions.
Additionally, in a uni-junction transistor, only the majority charge carriers initiate the flow of current.
For a BJT, both majority and minority charge carriers have the capacity to dictate the flow of current.
What is the Difference Between BJT and FET?
The following differences relate to the BJT and FET transistor types.
- The BJT has two junctions while the FET has a single junction.
Therefore, the operation of the BJT involves both the majority and minority charge carriers. Contrarily, the FET operation involves only majority carriers.
- The bipolar transistor operation is governed by the application of a current.
For a FET, the operation is initiated by a voltage application.
- The FET has a higher switching speed and cut-off frequency compared to the BJT.
This is because the BJT involves both majority and minority charge carriers during operations with the FET only utilizing majority carriers.
- The BJT has less input impedance than the FET. You can credit this to the forward biased nature of its input circuit contrasting with a FET’s reverse bias.
- The FET has more thermal stability and radiation tolerance compared to a BJT.
A bipolar junction transistor is affected more by extreme temperature conditions and increased radiation levels.
- When fabricating integrated circuits, FETs are preferred to BJTs due to their small compact sizes.
This way, many transistors can be accommodated on a single chip.
- The production cost of FETs is comparatively low compared to BJTs. This partly buttresses the popularity of FETs over BJTs.
- The BJT exhibits increased noise levels during operation while a FET is less noisy.
Why is the FET called a Field Effect Transistor?
The field effect transistor is called so because of the mode of operation of this type of transistor. When a voltage is applied to the source, an electric field is produced.
This field interacts with the electrons exciting them into movement.
Field effect transistors
Is a FET a Unipolar Device?
Yes, it is.
A field effect transistor is unipolar since it only utilizes the majority carriers during its operation.
This contrasts with the bipolar transistor that uses both majority and minority carriers in their operation.
Besides, the FET is thus able to achieve a higher switching speed and cut-off frequency compared to the BJT.
What are the Types of FET?
You find the field effect transistor divided into two categories.
These are the junction FET and the metal-oxide-semiconductor FET.
· The Junction FET
The design of a junction FET encompasses a channel of conductive p-type or n-type semiconducting material.
Besides, the source is located at one channel end and the drain at the other.
Besides this, it features a gate constructed with semiconductor material different from the channels.
It is at this gate that the electric field used to direct the current is applied.
When a voltage is applied to a JFET, conductivity is established.
As such, a junction FET has a high input impedance and cut-off frequency and faster switching power.
When the channel is made of n-type semiconducting material, its charge carriers are electrons.
Also, when made of p-type silicon, its charge carriers are holes. Holes are a term used to refer to electron deficits.
FETs have only a single junction.
For the junction FET, the junction is at the intersection of the gate and channel.
The gate and channel are usually composed of different semiconducting material.
This way, the junction is always a P-N junction.
Moreover, the flow of current at the junction is determined by the application of DC voltage.
Again, the size of the depletion region is also affected by the reverse voltage, applied. This provides more room for the conductivity of the current.
The junction can be heavily biased such that the depletion layer covers the whole channel.
When this happens the channel is said to be cut-off.
· The Metal-oxide-semiconductor FET
The metal-oxide-semiconductor FET is also designed with a conductive channel of p-type or n-type semiconducting material.
The metal-oxide-semiconductor FET’s gate is however coated by an oxide layer.
The layer of metal oxide is very thin making it vulnerable to damage.
Insulation of the gate by a metal oxide ensures current does not flow between the gate and channel.
This way, the metal-oxide-semiconductor has a high impedance of input.
What are the Advantages of FET?
You find the following benefits in using FETs:
- FETs have high input impedance than BJTs as a result of their status as voltage-controlled devices.
This gives them the ability to hold a charge for a long time allowing their use as storage devices.
- Field effect transistors have considerably low noise levels than bipolar junction transistors.
This allows for rather quiet operations.
- The thermal stability and radiation resistance levels of field effect transistors are desirable.
This allows FETs to be used in extreme temperature applications and high and radiation level environments.
- FETs are small in size with low production costs. This allows for their use as building blocks in integrated circuits, where several of them can be packed on a single chip.
- FETs are highly efficient with a high range of operating frequencies and the ability to disperse high power streams.
What are MOSFETS used for?
You find that MOSFETs are integral in digital and analog circuits providing a varied range of applications.
Some notable MOSFET applications are mentioned below.
- Due to their small and robust nature, MOSFETs are used in the fabrication of integrated circuit chips.
They also have low production costs allowing for high-density chip making.
- MOSFETS are essential in the construction of microprocessors which are vital for the operation of computer systems.
- The high input impedance of MOSFETS allows then the ability to store charge for a long time.
This has allowed MOSFETs to be used as storage devices where they store data in the form of charge.
- Consumer electronics such as the calculator, cellphone, home entertainment systems utilize MOSFETS to perform various functions.
- MOSFETs are heavily utilized in the information and communication industry. Applications of radiofrequency utilize amplifiers built from MOSFETs.
What are H Parameters?
The h parameters are also referred to as hybrid parameters.
They are used to define the input-output relationship of transistor circuits where measurement of z or y parameter is difficult.
Besides, they are used in describing the relationship between voltage and current providing a basis for simulation. Some h parameters for bipolar junction transistors include input resistance, output conductance, current gain, and feedback ratio.
What is a Power Transistor?
A power transistor is a transistor equipped to manage large currents and power.
It is a silicon chip device with three terminals and the ability to execute electric signal amplification and switching.
Audio equipment employ power transistors.
What is a Transistor Gain?
The forward current transfer ratio of a transistor designed with a common-base configuration is known as the transistor gain.
It compares the change of the current flow through the collector and the flow through the emitter.
The voltage drop across the base to the collector should remain unchanged.
How do you Bias Electronic Transistor?
The current flow at the base and the current and voltage of the collector are vital for smooth transistor operation.
To be able to provide the most favorable operating conditions for a transistor, it has to be biased.
A transistor is biased by applying optimum values for its current or operating voltage conditions.
This is to allow proper amplification of the AC signal applied as input.
What is the Rating of Electronic Transistor?
You find that electronic transistors can only sustain voltage and current amounts up to a certain level.
Exceeding these levels usually results in the damage of the transistors.
Additionally, they are affected by external temperatures and the ratings are based on optimum temperature conditions.
The following details provide some transistor ratings.
- Power dissipation: This rating describes the maximum amount of power in watts that an electronic transistor can dispel.
- Reverse voltages: This rating is specific to the terminal junctions. It provides for the highest reverse voltage allowed at the junctions. It is measured in volts.
- Collector current: Collector current rating is described in amperes and gives the maximum amount of current allowed to the collector.
- Saturation voltages: Saturation voltage is measured in volts. It provides the maximum value of a transistor’s voltage drop between the collector and the emitter.
As you can see, there are many aspects you need to learn about electronic transistors.
I hope this guide has made it simple for you to evaluate the FET and BJT.
However, if you have any questions, feel free to contact Rantle team.