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- Very robust and reliable memory technology.
- Supports both high performance and low power applications.
- Retains its data even after the power is turned off.
- Used in a variety of applications including smart cards, RFID, security, etc.
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Reliable FRAM IC Supplier - Rantle East Electronic
RANTLE FRAM IC perform at high temperature. FRAM IC is a very robust and reliable memory technology, even at high temperatures.
It does provide unparalleled flexibility and benefits for you. Initial implementations and designs are optimized for targeted areas of operation.
RANTLE FRAM IC supports both high performance and low power applications. However, our current FRAM array designs are optimized for low power operation. They are best suited for your devices operating below 25MHz. As with all technology evolutions, we expect to design higher performance FRAM memory arrays in the future that support your devices operating as much higher clock speeds.
RANTLE FRAM IC has fast write times. A write command, followed by a read/verify command, RANTLE FRAM’s write memory function, happens in the same process as reading memory. Additionally, RANTLE FRAM IC supports data reliability. RANTLE FRAM IC requires a small amount of energy and all the necessary power is front-loaded at the beginning of the data wire.
RANTLE FRAM IC is a non-volatile storage memory that retains its data even after the power is turned off. It requires a memory store after each read and each bit accessed to be re-written in a refresh function. RANTLE FRAM IC offers virtually unlimited endurance of 1014 read/write cycles. RANTLE FRAM IC medium is used in a variety of applications including smart cards, RFID, security and many other applications that require high-performance non-volatile memory.
RANTLE aims to develop as a global famous enterprise specializing in IC & electronic components supply. RANTLE East Electronic serves sincerely all the time for the customers based on the management philosophy of favorite price with excellent quality.
With the accurate quotation, excellent credit, reasonable price, reliable quality, fast delivery, authentic service, we have won the praise of the majority of customers. Avail now our FRAM IC and discover its best performance you’ve never experienced before!
FRAM IC FAQ: The Ultimate FAQ Guide
Today’s guide will answer all questions you may be having about FRAM IC.
Whether you want basic or advanced knowledge, you will get all the answers here.
It starts from – definition, working principle, advantages, components to testing procedures.
So if you wish to learn more about FRAM IC, keep reading:
- What is FRAM IC?
- How does a FRAM IC compare to an EEPROM IC?
- How does the FRAM IC compare with the SRAM IC?
- How does the FRAM IC compare to the DRAM IC?
- What are the components of a FRAM IC?
- Where can you use FRAM ICs?
- How do you Test the Quality of FRAM IC?
- Are there Quality Standards for FRAM ICs?
- How does a FRAM IC work?
- Can a FRAM IC lose data?
- How can you read a FRAM IC?
- How can you write a FRAM IC?
- How does the FRAM compare to the Flash Memory?
- How does the FRAM IC compare to the MRAM IC?
- What are some of the Architectures of FRAM IC?
- What are some of the interfaces applicable to FRAM IC?
- What are the Advantages of a FRAM IC?
- What are the Limitations of a FRAM IC?
- What are the Endurance Levels of a FRAM IC?
- What is the Hysteresis Loop Characteristic in FRAM IC?
- What is the Ferroelectric Effect in a FRAM IC?
- What are some of the Features of the FRAM IC?
- What Packaging is used with the FRAM IC?
- What is the Future of FRAM IC?
What is FRAM IC?
FRAM is the abbreviated form of Ferroelectric Random Access Memory.
A FRAM IC is a memory IC that encompasses the speed of dynamic RAM alongside the non-volatility aspect of ROM.
To attain non-volatility, the FRAM IC utilizes a ferroelectric film instead of a dielectric one.
The ferroelectric film is made of Lead Zirconate Titanate which is the most common ferroelectric substance.
How does a FRAM IC compare to an EEPROM IC?
An EEPROM IC is an electrically erasable read-only memory. It is a non-volatile memory chip that utilizes an array of floating-gate transistors to store data.
While an EEPROM IC has many advantages over similar storage devices such as the EPROM IC, it barely stands to the FRAM IC.
The FRAM IC can carry out faster write speeds than the EEPROM IC.
The write speed is such that, there’s no delay in having to wait for the write to complete.
An EEPROM IC has a write speed of about 5 milliseconds. This pales in comparison to a FRAM IC’s write speed of about 60 nanoseconds.
With a FRAM IC, you have in essence an unlimited endurance. This is because a FRAM IC can handle read/write cycles to the tune of billions.
As such, this makes it quite improbable for a FRAM IC to wear out. The life cycle of an EEPROM IC is typically a million cycles.
A FRAM IC consumes less power during the writing process. Take for example the writing and erasing of data amounting to 8 kilobytes.
A FRAM IC will consume up to sixty times less the power consumed by an EEPROM IC. This is because FRAM ICs require low voltage to carry out the writing process.
An EEPROM IC is vulnerable to high working temperatures and radiation levels. As such it cannot be usefully applied in environments exhibiting such extremities.
A FRAM IC, on the other hand, can function at elevated temperatures while being more tolerant to radiation.
How does the FRAM IC compare with the SRAM IC?
The static RAM IC is a memory chip that utilizes transistors to store data with a continuous supply of power.
Unlike a DRAM IC, it does not need constant refreshing.
While the SRAM IC stores volatile memory, the FRAM IC stores non-volatile memory type.
Thus, in the case power supply is cut a FRAM IC retains its stored data, unlike an SRAM IC.
The FRAM IC offers faster speeds of reading and writing data than an SRAM IC. With a FRAM IC the write speed is about 60 ns.
An SRAM IC consumes more power than a FRAM IC due to its high voltage needs.
An SRAM IC has multiple transistors in the architecture of its memory cell. In comparison, a DRAM IC has a single transistor and capacitor.
Due to its larger memory array, the SRAM IC has a large storage density than a FRAM IC. An SRAM IC can be composed of several thousand memory cells in its architecture.
How does the FRAM IC compare to the DRAM IC?
The dynamic RAM IC stores volatile data in memory cells requiring continuous refreshing to retain its contents.
This continuous refreshing is an indicator of its high power needs compared to a FRAM IC. Due to ferroelectric property, the FRAM IC has low power consumption.
A DRAM IC is a volatile memory storage chip. As such, it needs a continuous power supply to retain the data stored in it. A FRAM IC can hold the data it has stored.
Its non-volatility is a result of its ferroelectric properties.
The Ferroelectric RAM IC offers faster write speeds than the dynamic RAM IC.
DRAM ICs command large densities given their ability to have thousands of memory cells. FRAM ICs have low densities in comparison.
What are the components of a FRAM IC?
A ferroelectric RAM IC’s memory cell is composed of a metal oxide semiconductor transistor and a ferroelectric capacitor film.
Some FRAM ICs have two such capacitors and two such transistors.
Where can you use FRAM ICs?
You will find FRAM ICs being employed in the following applications:
- FRAM ICs are used in banking and ticketing cards to hold transactional history and provide backups.
- FRAM ICs are embedded into industrial microcontroller units to act as storage.
- You will find FRAM ICs in digital cameras where they provide correct value and initial setting.
- Medical equipment such as imaging device uses FRAM IC to set data.
- Measurement devices employ FRAM ICs for correct value and parameter settings.
How do you Test the Quality of FRAM IC?
A FRAM IC’s quality is tested by querying various aspects of its operation.
- A preconditioning test– This test is carried out by subjecting an operational FRAM IC under different temperature conditions for specified periods.
- A data retention test– This test seeks to establish how long a FRAM IC can retain its data under certain extreme conditions.
- An intrinsic and extrinsic data cycling test– This test seeks to provide the number of write cycles possible by a FRAM IC at a predefined temperature and period.
- A high-temperature operating life test– This test determines how long a FRAM IC can operate before failure at an elevated temperature.
- A temperature cycle test– This test seeks to establish within what temperature range a FRAM IC function.
Are there Quality Standards for FRAM ICs?
Yes, there are.
You find quality standards for FRAM ICs including.
- DESC-DWG-5962: For FRAM IC as a Digital Microcircuit Memory.
- BS-6493-2.1: FRAM ICs as integrated memory circuits.
- BS-EN-60747-16-1: FRAM IC as a semiconductor-based device.
- IEC-60748-2-11: FRAM IC as an erasable and programmable integrated memory circuit.
How does a FRAM IC work?
Ferroelectric material in a FRAM IC contains spontaneous polarizable crystal, with two reversible states on the application of an electric field.
The application of an electric field to the crystal causes the central atom to move in the field’s direction.
Movement of the atom causes it to break through an energy barrier resulting in a charge breakdown.
This breakdown causes the internal circuits to react by setting the memory.
Removal of the electric field maintains the atom in a polarized state giving the material non- volatile property. This preserves the memory state.
Can a FRAM IC lose data?
No, it cannot.
A FRAM IC is a non-volatile storage memory chip. Non-volatile storage is a memory type that is retained in the event power is cut off.
Volatile memory on the other hand requires an uninterrupted supply of power to retain data.
FRAM ICs, however, require refreshing of memory following a read procedure. This is because every bit accessed during a read procedure needs to be re-written.
Nonetheless, a FRAM IC has virtually unlimited write endurance.
How can you read a FRAM IC?
A 1T-1C FRAM IC comprises one ferroelectric capacitor connected on both ends to a plate line (PL) and a bit line (BL).
This connection is through an access transistor. Raising the word line (WL) turns on the transistor allowing access to the cell.
To read a cell in a 1T-1C FRAM IC entails the following.
The bit line (BL) is pre-charged to 0V before the word line (WL) is activated.
The pre-charging is to preserve the high impedance condition whether a value of “1” or “0” has to be read.
On selecting the word line, (WL) a voltage (VCC) is applied to the plate line (PL). The application of a voltage on the ferroelectric capacitor allows the reading of data.
If the cell value is “0”, polarization is not reversed.
However, the bit line is charged by a relatively small change in the voltage (VL) due to a minimal movement of the electric charge.
If some other cell has a “1” datum, polarization is reversed. This causes a large electric charge movement that charges the bit line up by VH.
The reference voltage (VR) , which is held by the sense amplifier is applied to the bit line.
This causes the VL to reduce to 0V since its lower than the reference voltage (VR). VH increases to VCC since its higher than the reference voltage.
How can you write a FRAM IC?
You apply a voltage of +VCC or -VCC to both the capacitor’s electrodes to write a value of “1” or “0”.
The selection of a word line (WL) turns the transistor on.
A voltage (VCC) is then applied between the plate line (PL) and bit line (BL). The application of this voltage to the capacitor executes the writing of data.
To write a “0” datum, the bit line is applied 0V and the plate line VCC. Reversing the voltage values for the bit line and plate line cause a “1” to be written.
A FRAM IC has to rewrite a data value after reading. Upon reading a “1” datum, it is destroyed by reverse polarization assigning the cell a “0” value.
Thus the value “1” needs to be restored.
The bit line voltage reverts to VCC on reading the datum “1”. The plate line voltage, on the other hand, becomes 0V rewriting the value “1”.
Turning off the word line causes the ferroelectric capacitor to acquire a “0” datum and subsequently stores the value “1”.
This stored value is the previously read “1” datum.
Reading a “0” value ensures the polarity remains unchanged. This indicates the preservation of the data and the value “0” is retained.
How does the FRAM compare to the Flash Memory?
You can compare the FRAM IC and the Flash Memory IC on various aspects including speed, power consumption, and durability.
A FRAM IC has faster write times than a Flash Memory IC. Writing to a FRAM IC’s memory cell takes less than 50 ns. This is more than 100 times faster than a Flash Memory IC.
Whereas a Flash Memory IC requires high voltages in the write process, the FRAM IC requires relatively low amounts. As such, less power is needed to change the data in a FRAM IC’s write process.
The high endurance levels of a FRAM IC when it comes to read/erase cycles make it more reliable in holding data.
A FRAM IC can persist to the tune of billions of read/write cycles in comparison to a Flash’s couple million.
FRAM Memory Board
How does the FRAM IC compare to the MRAM IC?
The MRAM is short for Magnetic Random Access Memory.
The MRAM comprises a single transistor and a single magnetic tunnel junction in its design infrastructure.
The magnetic tunnel junction utilizes the actual magnetic state of materials that are ferromagnetic to store data.
It, therefore, differs from the FRAM which utilizes a charge for data storage. Unlike magnetic field storage, the charge dissipates over time through the leakage.
This way, an MRAM can retain data for longer periods with unconstrained endurance.
Additionally, the MRAM IC features faster write speeds than the FRAM IC. However, this write speed is against high consumption of power which results in the production of heat.
Another downside to the MRAM IC is its susceptibility to external magnetic fields. When an MRAM is exposed to a magnetic field, it undermines its data storage ability.
What are some of the Architectures of FRAM IC?
The FRAM IC largely borrows its circuitry from the DRAM IC considering their identical call structure.
FRAM ICs have applied the folded-bit line cell design that was implemented for DRAM ICs. The bit lines are folded having them lie alongside the sense-amplifier.
The open-bit line design had the bit lines openly lying on the opposing side of the sense amplifier.
The folded- bit line cell design helps to lessen the occurrence of bit line mismatching. A bit line mismatch could happen as a result of a variation of processes.
However, FRAM ICs require an extra line in the form of a plate line. This has necessitated the development of new architectures for their circuitry.
The following are some known architectures for FRAM ICs.
The Word line-Parallel Plate line (WL//PL)
In this type of architecture, the Plate line (PL) runs parallel to the Word line (WL).
On activating a Wordline (WL) and a Plate line (PL), the whole row sharing the two lines is accessible.
In this design type, you cannot access a single cell minus accessing an entire row.
In some design alterations, the Plate line is shared between a pair of rows adjacent to each other. This causes a reduction in the array area by doing away with a metal line.
Disturbance of non-selected cells that are connected to the active plate line is possible in this instance.
These cells are disturbed since their ferroelectric capacitors develop voltage thanks to their connection with the active plate line.
This voltage is referred to as disturb voltage.
For a stored “0” value, the disturb voltage acts in the direction that buttresses the logic “0”.
A stored value of “1”, produces a contradicting direction of action of the disturb voltage.
In this case, it acts in the direction of changing the cell’s memory state.
If the disturb voltage is less than the ferroelectric capacitor’s coercive voltage, it is overlooked. If not, the “1” datum is changeable under a series of little voltage disturbances.
The Bit line-Parallel Plate line (BL//PL)
In this cell design, the Plate line is run parallel to the bit line.
Here, only one cell is selected when the Wordline and Plate line are activated concurrently.
This selected cell is usually located at the point where the Wordline and the Plate line intersect.
You can select multiple memory cells by activating their Platelines.
The Bit line-Parallel Plate line architecture undertakes the functionality of a y-decoder in selecting Platelines.
The same signal controls the activation of the sense amplifiers and the Plate line.
As such, for accessing one memory cell, only one sense amplifier is ignited.
Considerably less power is used this way.
When a whole row of cells is to be accessed, all corresponding Platelines are concurrently selected.
This causes a rise in the consumption of dynamic power. This is attributable to the charging and discharging of the Platelines.
A major drawback of this design is the disturbance of all cells in a column corresponding to the activated Plate line.
The Segmented Plate line (Segmented PL)
The Segmented Plate line infrastructure is suitable for larger memory arrays. This is done by dividing the plate line into local plate lines (LPL).
These plate lines are configured parallel to the Wordline. They are then directed by a global plate line (GBL) running parallel to the Bit line.
The LPL connection is only to a few cells; thus it’s more responsive than a plate line in the Wordline-Parallel Plate line design.
Additionally, the GPL is gated alongside the WL causing no disturbance to the cells not selected in the column.
The WL//PL architecture consumes more power and is considerably slower.
This is due to the activation of the whole plate line enabling the simultaneous access of a whole row of cells.
As such the Segmented Plate line design is preferred.
Accessing several cells on an identified row in a BL//PL architecture by activating multiple plate lines contributes to high power consumption.
Consequently, the Segmented Plate line design is also preferred over the BL//PL architecture.
What are some of the interfaces applicable to FRAM IC?
You find the following interfaces applicable to FRAM ICs.
· Parallel Interface
A parallel interface constitutes a multiline channel where each line can transmit several bits of data concurrently.
· Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
This interface type allows the transfer of a single bit of data at any given time between two devices.
Of the two devices, one is designated as a master and another slave. The SPI can transfer data bi-directionally and simultaneously and is primarily used in embedded systems.
· I2C Interface
The I2C interface allows intra-board communication between multiple slave ICs with one or more master chips.
It is applied in connecting over a short distance, peripheral ICs with lower speeds to processors and microcontrollers.
What are the Advantages of a FRAM IC?
You find the following advantages in using ferroelectric RAM IC:
- FRAM ICs have faster-writing performance.
- With FRAM IC you can perform more write and erase cycles.
- FRAM ICs retain data even in no-power situations.
- FRAM ICs have high endurance levels.
- FRAM ICs have low power consumption.
- A FRAM IC operates at low voltage.
What are the Limitations of a FRAM IC?
FRAM ICs have the following limitations
- You find FRAM ICs have a lower density of storage compared to dynamic RAM for instance.
- FRAM ICs cost higher compared to alternative memory ICs.
- In comparison to other memory chips, FRAM ICs are limited in terms of capacity.
What are the Endurance Levels of a FRAM IC?
Write endurance refers to a memory chip’s ability to live up to its manufacturing specification on total data changes applicable.
A FRAM IC has high endurance levels concerning read/write cycles.
A FRAM IC can carry out over a billion read/write cycles which makes it virtually unlimited. This is while also able to operate for ten years at a maximum operating temperature of 850 C.
What is the Hysteresis Loop Characteristic in FRAM IC?
A FRAM IC is a memory chip that employs a ferroelectric film to attain its non-volatility. The material being ferroelectric is not an indicator of its magnetic property.
The common characteristic here with ferromagnetic material is the phenomenon of hysteresis.
A ferroelectric capacitor’s hysteresis loop presents a capacitor’s total charge as a function of the voltage applied.
At zero voltage, the capacitor takes a stable state of either “0” or “1”.
You can switch from a state of “0” to “1” by applying a negative voltage. To switch a state of “1” back to “0”, you apply a pulse of positive voltage across the capacitor.
From the hysteresis loop, you can extract the following parameters. The coercive voltage, the remnant charge, and the saturation charge.
The coercive voltage is the voltage at which the capacitor’s net charge is zero.
This voltage is construed as an estimated switching voltage for a loop with sharp transitions.
Smooth transitions at coercive voltage lack switching voltages providing an array of voltages for the switching domains.
The remnant charge refers to the capacitor charge at which a state of “0” can be switched to a “1” or a state of “1” to “0”.
The initial switching voltage is provided as a positive value. Reverting to a previous state is provided as a negative value f the same amount.
The saturation charge is the charge produced at maximum voltage. It is indicated on the hysteresis loop as the point at which the hysteresis loop converges.
What is the Ferroelectric Effect in a FRAM IC?
Ferromagnetic memory illustration
The ferroelectric effect in a FRAM IC is a phenomenon which exhibits electric polarization even without an externally applied electric field. Additionally, the polarization direction is reversible by an electric field.
Ferromagnetic materials can display magnetic properties at zero magnetic fields. Likewise, ferroelectric materials can exhibit polarization at zero electric fields.
This occurrence is referred to as the electric dipole moment and is measured as per unit volume.
The reversal of the polarization state exhibited in the ferroelectric effect is referred to as switching.
What are some of the Features of the FRAM IC?
Some of the features to look out for in a FIFO IC include.
- High writing speed.
- Low power needs.
- Over a trillion read/write cycles.
- Options of FIFO ICs for various interfaces.
- Industrial grade densities of 4-8 Mb
- Ability to withstand harsh conditions such as elevated temperatures and high radiation levels.
What Packaging is used with the FRAM IC?
You will find FRAM ICs in several packages as follows.
a) Thin Small Outline Package (TSOP)
This is a type of surface-mount package for integrated circuits. They are characterized by their tight lead spacing and low profile.
Their use is founded on their high pin count and reduced volume.
b) Wafer-level Packaging
This packaging method entails the packaging of a memory chip as a wafer part. This results in a package of similar size to a chip.
c) Quad Flat No-lead Package (QFNP)
In this type of package, the integrated memory circuit is connected to the printed circuit board both physically and electrically.
d) Thin Dual Flat No-lead (TDFN) Package
This is a surface-mount package of plastic material that replaces leads with metal pads for its electrical connection. It is usually very thin and small with a square or oblong shape.
e) Fine-Pitch Ball Grid Array (FBGA) Package
This is essentially a ball grid array package but on a smaller scale. It utilizes solder balls for electrical connections that are configured in an array at the package bottom.
The solder balls are also closer to each other than in standard ball grid array.
What is the Future of FRAM IC?
You find work is being done on current FRAM ICs to improve their functionality in several aspects. This includes:
- Increasing their memory capacity.
- Combination with other devices to provide enhanced devices.
- Improve on their density levels.
- Establishing their use in event and data logging for autonomous systems.
- For purposes of creating information displays and monitoring controls for the environment.
Clearly, this guide has covered the vital aspects of FRAM ICs.
But still, if you have questions about FRAM integrated circuits, don’t hesitate to the contact Rantle technical team.