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- Have single and multiple-cell switch-mode chargers.
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- High energy density and low memory effect.
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RANTLE IC batteries have single and multiple-cell switch-mode chargers provide high efficiency and advanced features for faster and cooler charging of high capacity batteries in smartphones. It has ultra-low quiescent current and superior termination current accuracy to maximize your battery run time and effective battery capacity.
Aside from simple, easy to use linear chargers, RANTLE IC batteries have Nano power battery management unit with more integration of power rails and functionalities. These compact and integrated solution are optimal for space limited applications and reduce total solution size.
RANTLE IC batteries has high energy density and low memory effect and will be used in storage likes battery-powered equipment and solar power as well as automotive. It has the protection function for battery voltage and over-current detection for safety.
RANTLE IC batteries features high performance by SOI process, high accuracy from low to high temperatures, stabilize a circuit by reducing noise, and latch-up free.
RANTLE IC Batteries supports a range of applications such as lithium ion battery monitoring, PV cell energy harvesting, industrial monitoring, wearable devices, and other portable equipment. It is applicable on TEG energy harvesting, self-powered wireless sensor devices, and electric and hybrid electric vehicles. RANTLE provides IC batteries with single chip solutions for power supply monitoring and battery control functions in microprocessor system.
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For almost 16 years of developing in the industry, RANTLE satisfies all its customers and now we have got an excellent international commercial reputation and public praise among the customers.
We have founded a long-term business relationship with more than one hundred global famous electronic companies. RANTLE provides high-quality service, reasonable price, fast delivery, quality warranted products and excellent after-sale service. For OEM or custom (PN), the engineers help in design concept and CAD drawing while helping in material specification and size of the product. Avail now and contact our hard-working sales team.
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IC Batteries The Ultimate FAQs Guide
If you have questions about IC batteries, your answers are all here.
This guide focuses on the benefits, features, components, pin configurations, topologies, power management, and working principle, amongst others.
Let’s dive right in:
- What is IC Batteries?
- What are the Benefits of the Battery Charge Controller IC?
- What are the Features of IC Batteries?
- Which are the Main Components of IC Batteries?
- What is TP4056 IC?
- What is the Pin Configuration of the TP4056 Battery Charge Controller IC?
- Which are the Main Topologies in the Battery Charge Controller IC?
- What is Dynamic Power Management and Dynamic Power Path Management in IC Batteries?
- How does IC Batteries Work?
- What is CC Mode and CV Mode in Relation to IC Batteries?
- Which are the Main Types of Battery Chargers that use IC Batteries?
- Which Types of Rechargeable Batteries Require Battery IC?
- What are the Factors to Consider when Selecting a Charging IC?
- How does Linear Charging IC compare to Switch-mode Charging IC?
- What is the Importance of SMBus in IC Batteries?
- What are the Essential Specifications of Battery Charger Integrated circuits?
- Which are the Different Packages for IC Batteries?
- Which are the System Requirements that Determine the Choice of Charging IC?
What is IC Batteries?
Lithium battery charging IC
Also known as charging IC or charge controller IC, IC Batteries supplies appropriate charge voltage and current for the individual battery cell within your system or application.
The majority of charge controller integrated circuits are fabricated for Li-Ion batteries. This is because they are commonly used in hand-held devices.
Apart from measuring the charge current and voltage of the battery, the charging IC also monitors the pass MOSFET.
This ensures the charge current follows the appropriate modes of charge operation. These modes are:
- Constant current
- Constant voltage, and
- Current cut-off.
Both Solo and multiple-cell switch-mode IC batteries have incredibly high, efficient, and advanced features.
The features guarantee quicker and cooler charging of batteries of high capacity found in notebooks, smartphones, and wide medical, consumer, and industrial applications.
Linear battery charger ICs have exceptional termination accuracy of current and super-low quiescent current.
This enables them to maximize efficiency and run time of the battery, which is essential for applications involving small battery telematics e-call, IoT, and wearable.
What are the Benefits of the Battery Charge Controller IC?
Charger controller IC prevents overcharging and over-voltages of a battery, which may later affect the battery performance, therefore, pose a safety risk.
Charger controller IC also prevents the complete draining of a cell and performs controlled discharges depending on the battery’s technology.
Besides, the charger controller IC provides a reliable, cost-efficient, and a correct regulation solution with less exterior components.
What are the Features of IC Batteries?
Battery monitoring IC
The majority of charging integrated circuits can be utilized in any kind of rechargeable battery chemistry, consisting of nickel-, lead-acid, LiFePO4– and Li-Ion-based types.
They are applied for both wired and wireless uses.
Let’s look at some of the key attributes common in the majority of battery charging controller ICs:
- Provide many conventional features for the management and safety of the battery. This consists of on-chip pre-conditioning of battery, limiting of current, temperature-regulated charging, examining, and protection.
- It has the potential to support multiple cells, multi-chemistry batteries, and high voltage with one device.
- Utilized in numerous topologies like switching and linear layouts where their functioning is entirely autonomous.
- Support a broad spectrum of applications including harvesting of PV cell energy, monitoring of lithium-ion battery, industrial monitoring, wearable, and other portable devices.
- It provides telemetry through I2C or SMBus interface.
Which are the Main Components of IC Batteries?
The main components of a battery charger IC are:
- A transformer which is instrumental in stepping down a high main voltage to a reduced secondary voltage.
- LED indicator helpful in determining the voltage level.
- Voltage regulator is important in regulating the voltage generated within the battery.
- Full-wave bridge rectifier essential in the conversion of AC to DC.
- Capacitor functions as a filter.
What is TP4056 IC?
The TP4056 is an inexpensive Li-Ion battery charging IC that supports a consistent current and voltage mechanism in one cell Li-Ion battery.
It exists in an eight-pin SOP package and needs less exterior components to fabricate a Li-Ion battery charging controller IC.
Thermal feedback controls the charge current to restrict the temperature of the die in high surrounding temperature or in operations of high power.
The fixed charge voltage is 4.2V, and you can use one resistor to program the charge current externally.
After reaching the ultimate float voltage, the TP4056 battery IC automatically stops the charge cycle. This happens when the current goes down to 1/10 of the set value.
Other properties of the TP4056 comprise of:
- Under-voltage lockout
- Current monitoring
- Automatic recharging
- Dual status pin
They are vital in indicating input voltage presence and charge termination.
What is the Pin Configuration of the TP4056 Battery Charge Controller IC?
TP4O56 is a battery charging IC composed of eight pins which include PROG, GND, VCC, STBBY, TEMP, CHRG, BAT, and CE.
Let’s go straight to the definition and functions every pin in this type of charging controller IC:
It serves as an input pin linked to the NTC thermistor output within a battery pack.
Its main function is to detect the temperature.
Depending on the voltage at the TEMP pin, you are in a position to establish the battery temperature.
When the voltage is lower than 45 percent of Vcc for a duration higher than 0.15 S, then there is a very low temperature.
However, if for the same period, the voltage is greater than 80 percent of Vcc, the temperature is high.
The pin helps in setting the charge current to the rechargeable battery.
This is effected by linking a resistor referred to as RPROG in the middle of GND and this pin.
Depending on the resistor value, the charge current can range from 130 mA to 1000 A.
This is a ground pin.
The pin supplies power and TP4056 normally use 5 V though it can bear a maximal of 8 V.
It is the pin linked to the battery positive terminal, and it always has a voltage of 4.2 V.
The pin has an LED linked to it which shows standby mode. The pin gets pulled low after the complete charging of the battery.
It also has an LED linked to it which shows battery charging. The pin gets pulled low during the charging of the battery.
It serves as the input pin useful in enabling or disabling the IC battery into and out of operation.
Which are the Main Topologies in the Battery Charge Controller IC?
Battery charger IC
Some of the main topologies include:
An ordinary linear charging controller IC comprises of a pair of bidirectional obstructing switches helpful in the isolation of input and output terminals.
The pinout or median point the two switches, commonly known as PMID, has the capacity to powers the system.
Therefore, the voltage of the system can vary from the input voltage (if available) all the way to the battery voltage after removal of the input.
This isolation of battery voltage and system voltage is referred to as power path management, which is a popular attribute among charging ICs.
In the presence of an input during ordinary operation, turning on the first switch shorts the PMID input.
The role of the second switch is to control its resistance so as to modulate the voltage and currently found at the output of the battery.
The majority of linear battery charger integrated circuits for one cell Lithium-Ion batteries are supplied by a power supply of 5 V.
Battery IC using this topology are usually utilized for up to 1A charge currents and are appropriate for up to 1Ah battery cells.
· Buck Switch-mode Charge Topology
These types of battery charge controller IC comprise four switches, including the Reverse blocking FET that prevents the discharging of the battery into the input.
It also has a pair of switching FETs that serve as a buck converter for DC-DC.
The fourth being the battery FET that helps in power-path management.
In the presence of input, you can power the system by the buck converter.
However, in case the input is overloaded or eliminated, you can power the system using the battery.
IC batteries applying this battery charger IC topology are more effective in comparison to linear charger ICs.
· Direct Charge Topology
The IC battery’s topologies discussed so far deal tackle charge-voltage or charge-current modulation.
However, a direct charger IC transfers the control to an exterior adapter and uses a technique of directly linking the input of the integrated circuit to the output.
This technique can attain efficiencies of above 96%, like a shorting FET in the middle of a VBAT and VBUS.
Nowadays, direct charger solutions are fit for extremely high-level charge currents ranging from 4A to 8A.
· Dual Charging Topology
Dual charging topology ensures a higher charge current, and it involves placing two battery charger ICs in parallel to each other.
It has been in application in the smartphone sector since 2015.
To achieve a high current, the main charging IC gives charge current.
It bears the system load while the parallel charger IC offers extra charging current having high efficiency.
You can use dual charge topology with all the switching topology types.
What is Dynamic Power Management and Dynamic Power Path Management in IC Batteries?
Dynamic power management and dynamic power path management are two features in the battery charger IC that are similar.
Power path management in Charger IC
It utilizes the power path, the component of the charge controller IC responsible for isolating the battery and the system.
This phenomenon facilitates concurrent charging of battery and delivery of system power.
The two features decrease the charging current of the battery to prioritize the system after attainment of the maximal rating of the output current by the adapter.
On the other hand, is defined as an input current limit procedure that monitors and regulates the input current flowing to the system or device (IINDPM OR ILIM).
You can equally describe it as an input voltage limit procedure that monitors and regulates the input voltage (VINDPM).
The input voltage modulation is done through a resistor divider in the middle of two resistors.
It then compares the results with VREF_VINDPM that is usually determined by VINDPM_DAC.
The two methods are crucial for varying scenarios however both attain their function by determining a maximal level of current on the input.
Furthermore, dynamic power-path management is a procedure of managing current in a battery charger IC depending on the voltage of the system.
In some instances, the system voltage can fall lower than a preconfigured threshold.
This could be a result of the current-limit threshold or power loss.
In such a scenario, to avoid any more fall in the voltage of the system, DPPM routine decreases the charging current of the battery adequately.
But when the charge current falls to zero, a partly charged battery can go into supplement state.
This implies that the battery assists in supplying the system with power after the voltage falls under VBSUP1.
How does IC Batteries Work?
To explain the working principle of Battery charger IC, let’s use this simple circuit that comprises of AC-DC converter, relay drivers, and switch station.
Mobile battery charger circuit
The first part is the AC-DC converter section or power regulator.
This part consists of a step-down transformer.
The transformer steps down the 240 v AC power supply to 9 v AC at 750 mA. T
Also, the 9v Ac is then converted to DC by a full-wave rectifier which is then smoothened by a capacitor.
When the S1 switch is turned on, the regulator provides a steady 12 V charging power, and if the charger is working correctly a Light Emitting Diode (LED) glows red.
The next section in the IC battery is the relay driver segment consisting of PNP transistors which energize electromagnetic relay switches.
This relay switch is connected to 3 PNP transistors driving each other in a relay.
The third part of the IC battery is the switch station or the charging section.
In this section, the charging IC is configured to provide 7.35V by using a preset VR1.
Between the charge controller IC output, a D6 diode is connected and up to 6.7V of a limiting battery output voltage is applied in the battery charging.
Battery charging is activated by the relay switches.
When the voltage in each cell goes beyond 1.3 V during charging, resistor R4 starts reducing charging voltage.
As the charging voltages drop below 650 mV, transistor T3 cuts off and conducts to transistor T2 which subsequently cuts off the transistor T3.
Consequently, relay RL1 becomes de-energized hence cutting off the battery charger IC and eventually turn off the red LED1.
What is CC Mode and CV Mode in Relation to IC Batteries?
The lithium-ion battery charging process needs a constant current (CC) at medium accuracy in the first phase of charging.
Besides, the charging process then transitions to a second phase whereby a high- accuracy constant voltage (CV) is maintained.
At the initial phase of battery charging known as the rapid charging phase, the CC mode maintains a high currency at changing voltage levels.
The rapid charging continues up to a certain level which then switches automatically to a slow charging phase at the last stages of battery charging.
At the slow charging phase, the CV mode supplies little current while maintaining a steady voltage supply.
This process is commonly used to charge lithium-ion batteries like those found in mobile phones and laptops.
Which are the Main Types of Battery Chargers that use IC Batteries?
Currently, in the market, we have two types of IC Battery charger.
- Timer controlled chargers
- Smart chargers are commonly known as Intelligent Chargers.
It is important to note that the difference between these chargers is the cost and in the technology used.
The smart chargers are more expensive and have advanced technology. Let’s look at the two types of charges in greater detail.
· Smart/ Intelligent Chargers
Smart battery charger
They are designed to check each cell in a battery and calculate the required voltage for charging. Thus they intelligently charge each cell with the required voltage.
Even though this technology is expensive, the smart charger is very good because:
- It cannot damage a battery as a result of over or undercharging
- It eliminates the stress of constantly worrying about the charging status of a battery.
· Timer Controlled Battery Chargers
Timer battery controlled charger
They have an inbuilt auto shut off timer.
Several batteries are all placed in the timer-controlled battery charger, then the preferred time for charging is set.
The charger will automatically go off when the set time elapses.
Now, the only advantage of this type of charger is the fact that it is very cheap.
However, this simple charging device has some drawbacks.
First, it cannot calculate the charge level of a battery and the required voltage required for a full charge of a battery.
Therefore, batteries with different charging needs are all charged equally in one duration.
Secondly, careful examination of the Timer Controlled Battery charging system reveals critical damages to batteries.
This critical damages to batteries arise from overcharging and undercharging which ruins the battery performance and possible damages to electronics using the damaged batteries.
In a nutshell, this system is very cheap but the cost of damaged batteries and electronic gadgets is very high alluding to the saying that cheap is always expensive.
Which Types of Rechargeable Batteries Require Battery IC?
Various types of rechargeable batteries for usage are currently available in the market. Theses batteries are:
- Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are lightweight but have a high energy level.
- Lithium-ion polymer (Li-polymer) is chemically similar to Li-ion batteries in terms of energy density.
- Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries are very economical while being long-lasting.
- Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries have a shorter life cycle compared to NiCd but with more power.
Quality and type of a Battery IC ultimately affect the performance and lifespan of a battery.
For instance, a Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) charger IC can also charge a Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery.
However, a Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery charging IC will easily overcharge a Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery.
Tighter charge voltages and algorithms are applied in Lithium-based chargers.
What are the Factors to Consider when Selecting a Charging IC?
A good battery IC charger should safely charge a battery within a reasonable time frame.
In addition, it must consistently provide quality power to the system with safety features for the battery and system protection.
How does Linear Charging IC compare to Switch-mode Charging IC?
At the moment two different types of charging methods are available in Battery Integrated Circuit.
These types are:
- Linear charging battery IC
- Switch-mode charging battery IC
Selecting a charger is mostly based on cost, efficiency, and size. The difference between the two types of chargers are:
- Cost: switch-mode charging Battery IC are expensive than the linear switch-mode charging
- Size: linear chargers are light and small making it suitable for noise-sensitive situations. In contrast, switch-mode chargers are larger and bulky.
- Power: switch-mode charging uses less power than linear chargers.
- Efficiency: linear chargers are more efficient than the switch-mode chargers
What is the Importance of SMBus in IC Batteries?
System Management Bus specification (SMBus) is the main path of communication with the battery charger IC.
The SMBUS is a double wire interface that provides a means for simple power-related chips to communicate with the entire system.
It is a precise implementation of the I2C bus responsible for device addresses and data protocol.
In addition, the SMBus is specially designed to physically carry data and commands between intelligent battery charger, intelligent battery, and other smart gadgets.
I2C is the backbone of SMBus.
The SMBus enables systems to easily and efficiently communicate with electrical devices compared to the tripping individual control lines.
In addition, SMBus enables the design of smaller electricals and extra space for future expansions and additions.
Importantly devices and gadgets using SMBus provide information about the manufacturer and relays model/part number to the system.
Furthermore, the devices can report errors, accept control parameters, save data or suspend activity and return its status.
What are the Essential Specifications of Battery Charger Integrated circuits?
Battery charger ICs
The following are the most significant performance specifications for battery charger ICs:
- Output Supply voltage
- Total number of cells
- Voltage supply accuracy
- Quiescent current (IQ)
- Maximum charging current
- Range of Operating temperature
Which are the Different Packages for IC Batteries?
There exist a variety of packages for battery charger ICs.
They may come in the form of DIPs which can be fabricated from plastic (PDIP) and ceramic (CDIP).
There are also grid array packages that comprise of:
- tape ball-grid array
In addition, you can also have your battery charger IC packaged in chip size or chip-scale packages (CSPs).
The area of these types of charging IC packages is not greater than 20 percent of the built-in-die, and their variants consist of wafer-level CSP and flip-chip CSP.
Charger controller ICs can equally come in Quad flat packages which usually constitute fine, versatile gull-wing molded leads.
The various types of QFP include thin QFP, low QFP, and QFM (non-lead package).
Other available packages of battery IC comprise of:
- Small outline package
- Small outline integrated circuit
- Small outline J-lead
- Mini small outline package
- Shrink small outline package
- Thin SSOP (L-leaded)
Which are the System Requirements that Determine the Choice of Charging IC?
A variety of charging IC is available in the market depending on the requirements of a system. This charging Integrated Circuit range from simple to smart chargers capable of providing system power. Here are some of the system requirements:
- USB port and/ adapter support through Input-voltage dynamic power management (DPM).
- Automatic system instant-on with discharged or disconnected battery through a dynamic power path management (DPPM)
- Support high-capacity battery packs within a short charging time through a High charging current
- Good overall system efficiency and thermal regulation through a Low FET RDS (on) for both the battery and system path.
In short, IC batteries play an integral role in electronic systems.
When you consider everything mentioned in this guide, you will get high quality and reliable IC battery.
At Rantle, we design and manufacture cost-competitive IC batteries.
Contact us today for OEM and wholesale IC batteries.