NAND FLASH IC Distributor in China
- Easy to design in to your any storage application from storage cards to mobile internet devices.
- Provide high-capacity storage in ultra-tiny packages.
- Provides volatile and non-volatile block protection features that can be used to protect boot code.
- Provides a greater amount of flexibility without having to worry about limitations on the number of blocks.
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Reliable NAND FLASH IC Supplier - Rantle East Electronic
RANTLE NAND FLASH IC is available in a wide range of densities, voltages and configurations. It’s easy to design in to your any storage application from storage cards to mobile internet devices (MIDs) to enterprise servers. The NAND FLASH IC landscape is always changing. Emerging applications need to innovative solutions. RANTLE NAND FLASH is in an ideal position to help you take your design in a different direction.
RANTLE NAND FLASH devices combine leading edge NAND technology and an ONFI high-speed synchronous interface to provide high-capacity storage in ultra-tiny packages. RANTLE leverage and focus and drive to push the performance levels of all NAND devices to ensure the best possible NAND solution.
RANTLE offers e-MMC and UFS, a family of high-capacity NAND FLASH Memories that integrates a controller in one package. The e-MMC and UFS reduce the workload on the host processor, simply product development, shorten time-to-market and increase ease of use of memory products. The solutions provide ECC and other control functions.
For applications where security is a priority, RANTLE offers the SL Secure NAND flash memory family which provides enhanced protection features. NAND FLASH memory provides volatile and non-volatile block protection features that can be used to protect boot code, system firmware and applications. with volatile block protection, a single block or range of blocks can be chosen to lock the specified area until the next power cycle.
This provides a greater amount of flexibility without having to worry about limitations on the number of blocks that need to be protected.
RANTLE has a wide and unobstructed channel for supply source, and reserves a large number of electronic components.
With almost 16 years’ stable development, RANTLE East Electronic accumulates “reputable” business philosophy and achieves wide supports from customers.
Now we have got an excellent international commercial reputation and public praise among the customers.
We promise that RANTLE East Electronic is your most trustworthy and reliable electronic components supplier!
NAND Flash IC: Ultimate FAQ Guide
In case you have questions about NAND Flash IC, all answers are here.
You are going to learn everything about NAND Flash ICs, from – working principle, classification, error correction, features, to storage specifications, amongst others.
So, if you want to be an expert in these memory ICs, read it to the end.
- What is a NAND Flash IC?
- What does NAND stand for?
- How does a NAND Flash IC Work?
- What are the types of NAND Flash IC?
- What is an Error Correcting Code (ECC)?
- Where is the NAND Flash IC used?
- Is NAND Flash IC RAM or ROM?
- What is a NAND Flash IC made of?
- Can you erase a NAND Flash IC?
- What is the Write Process for NAND Flash IC?
- How is Data Read from a NAND Flash IC?
- What is the difference between a NAND and NOR Flash IC?
- Does BIOS use NAND Flash IC?
- Is NAND Flash IC non-volatile?
- Compare the DRAM IC and NAND Flash IC?
- What are the Advantages of the NAND Flash IC?
- What are the Features of a NAND Flash IC?
- What are the Disadvantages of the NAND Flash IC?
- Is NAND Flash IC Fast?
- Is NAND Flash IC used as Primary or Secondary Storage?
- What is a Sector in a NAND Flash IC?
- Does an SD Card use NAND or NOR Flash IC?
- Can NAND Flash IC be used as RAM?
- What is the Capacity of a NAND Flash IC?
- What is 3D NAND Flash IC?
- Why is the NAND Flash IC used in Embedded Systems?
- How long can a NAND Flash IC Last?
- How many times can a NAND Flash IC be Rewritten?
- Can a Magnet Erase a NAND Flash IC?
- Are NAND Flash ICs Safe for Long Term Storage?
- What Packaging is used for NAND Flash IC?
What is a NAND Flash IC?
A NAND Flash integrated circuit is a non-volatile storage type that retains data in the absence of power.
A NAND Flash IC provides improved speeds, the ability to store more data, and cheaper cost.
The construction of a NAND Flash IC includes memory cells where the data is stored in an assortment of floating gate resistors.
NAND Flash Memory
What does NAND stand for?
The configuration is such that an AND gate is succeeded by a NOT gate.
The working formula of a NAND gate is like to negate the input.
Consequently, a NAND operator will only produce a FALSE value if the values of both two inputs are TRUE.
In case the inputs are FALSE, it will produce a TRUE value.
How does a NAND Flash IC Work?
To store data, a NAND Flash IC relies on electric circuits and saves the data as blocks.
It relies on memory cells in an array of metal-oxide-semiconductor floating-gate transistors as its storage.
The MOS floating gate transistors are structured with a pair of gates, the control gate and the floating gate.
These gates are responsible for the movement of data in a NAND Flash IC.
A voltage is applied to the control gate to program a single cell. This causes electrons to be attracted to the gate.
However, the electrons are trapped by the floating gate within the polysilicon substrate.
There, they remain during normal conditions of operation.
Detaching power from a NAND Flash IC causes the control gate to deploy an extra charge to the memory cell.
This way, data stored before cutting off power is kept.
For the erasure process, the control gate is grounded with the application of a voltage to the polysilicon substrate.
What are the types of NAND Flash IC?
You find NAND Flash ICs classified according to the cell configuration of the memory chip.
This is about the number of bits you can store in each cell.
This way you establish the type of NAND Flash IC by the number of bits stored in every individual cell.
1. Single-Level Cell
The Single-Level Cell can store a single bit of data in each cell.
This means that it can only identify two states “0” and “1”.
The state “0” indicates data presence and the state “1” indicates a presence of no data, or erased state.
These two states are both provided within one level of voltage.
The presence of only two possible states derives some benefits to the Single-Level Cell type of NAND Flash IC.
For instance, the read and write processes are faster due to reduced access time.
Storing only a single charge in a cell also ensures low power consumption of this type of NAND Flash IC.
Additionally, by storing only an individual bit in every cell, it has higher endurance then multi-level cell types.
This is credited to the simpler process of erasing only a single bit of data compared to multiple bits.
Even so, the Single-Level Cell NAND Flash IC costs more to develop per bit of data.
This is because it stores less data compared to multi-level cell types of Flash IC.
Ultimately, Single-Level Cell NAND Flash IC is used in applications requiring high performance. This is thanks to its faster speed of data transfer and longer life.
Such an application is when a NAND Flash IC is utilized in an embedded system.
2. Multi-Level Cell
The multi-level cell is typically used to refer to a NAND Flash IC capable of storing two bits of data in each cell.
This way, it utilizes a dual voltage threshold.
The capability to store two bits in a single cell provides an advantage of larger storage capacity at a lower cost.
This is over the Single-Cell Level type of Flash IC.
Nonetheless, a Multi-Level Cell type has a string of drawbacks attached to it.
For starters, the multiple storage of bits in a cell results in increased access time in reading or writing data.
This speaks to its low speeds compare to the single-level cell type.
Furthermore, a multi-level cell exhibits lower write endurance and consumes more power. The lower write endurance is due to increased wear during write/erase procedures.
This compels the use of wear leveling to prolong its life. Wear leveling dampens to further the performance.
Wear leveling is a procedure intended to extend the life of a Flash IC.
This is done by redistributing data bits across a memory cell’s location addresses.
With the increased data storage capacity, a multi-level cell will exhibit an increased bit error rate.
Bit error rate refers to the total number of errors related to stored bits per unit time.
The increased rate of bit error necessitates the use of an error-correcting code to remedy the situation.
3. Triple-Level Cell
This type of NAND Flash IC stores three data bits in a single cell.
Like the Multi-Level Cell type, it has the advantage of allowing higher capacity at a much lower cost.
It also shares the same drawback with the multi-level cell but with greater intensity.
It consumes more power to store the three bits of data in a cell.
Besides, reading and writing data requires longer access times hampering its performance in speed.
The bit error rate is also larger and there is even more need for wear leveling with a triple-level cell NAND type.
In summary, the number of bits in a cell is related to its storage capacity and data transfer rate. As such, allowing the storage of more bits in a cell allows for large capacities for data storage. However, it also results in a reduced speed of accessing and inputting data.
The write endurance for NAND Flash IC types is also affected by an increasing number of bits in each cell.
The higher the number of bits in a cell, the lower the write endurance.
A NAND Flash IC cell is erased in blocks.
Therefore, a multi/triple-level cell will undergo multiple erase cycles to completely remove data in it.
What is an Error Correcting Code (ECC)?
Correcting error codes
Multilevel cell types of NAND Flash IC display increased bit error rates compared to single-level cell type.
This bit error rate needs to be addressed to maintain the performance integrity of the NAND Flash IC.
An Error Correcting Code is used to address this anomaly.
An Error Connecting Code utilizes an external electrical circuit connection. It then amends errors that arose during the read process.
AN ECC can also rectify bit errors that arise over time with a loss or gain of charge.
Where is the NAND Flash IC used?
You find the NAND Flash IC utilized in many applications of varied nature.
Applications for NAND Flash IC could be industrial oriented or consumer-oriented.
You find mass storage devices like USB flash drives, SD cards, MP3 players and SSDs utilize NAND Flash IC.
Modern CPUs also use NAND Flash IC for firmware storage before reverting to SRAM on power-up.
Is NAND Flash IC RAM or ROM?
Random Access Memory refers to the ability of a memory chip to access its data randomly allowing faster read performance.
Also, with RAM chips, you can read and write data on them.
RAM chips, however, store volatile memory. This memory type is unable to retain or hold its data whenever the power supply is interrupted.
A NAND Flash IC can only access data sequentially, in blocks. This is testament to its inability of accessing data randomly as traditional RAM chips do.
Besides a NAND Flash IC can hold onto its data in the event of a power cut.
You can, however, write into a NAND Flash IC. You can write a NAND Flash IC after carrying out an erasure procedure.
The erasure process is carried out at the block level, whereas the read process is at the page level.
NAND flash memory layout
A Read-Only Memory is a memory type that allows you to read but not write into it.
Progressive ROM chips have however provided for the alteration of its contents.
This is through allowing erasure of the data held and a subsequent write process to replace the data.
ROM memory is also non-volatile. This allows access of saved data after an episode of power interruption.
The NAND Flash IC can retain stored data after a power cut thus sharing a commonality with ROM.
Additionally, the NAND Flash IC allows data to be written into by providing the possibility of erasure.
The NAND Flash IC was developed as an improvement on the EEPROM IC.
Both the EEPROM and the NAND Flash ICs bear structural similarity with the use of the floating-gate transistors.
In summary, you find that the NAND Flash IC encapsulates some aspects of both RAM and ROM.
You can read and write data on a NAND Flash IC much like you would on a RAM.
Moreover, data in a NAND Flash IC is not lost on the interruption of power supply just like in ROM.
What is a NAND Flash IC made of?
A NAND Flash IC is made up of memory cells in an array of metal-oxide-semiconductor floating-gate transistors.
Floating gate transistor
These floating-gate transistors have the control and floating gates just like in an EEPROM IC. They are, however, rigged to function in the manner of the NAND Boolean reasoning.
The control gate and floating gate are separated by an oxide layer of insulating properties.
This insulating layer surrounds the floating gate preventing the charge from escaping while holding data.
There is also a poly-silicon substrate that provides the reverse destination for applying voltage when erasing a cell.
While voltage is applied on the substrate the control gate is grounded. This results in the reversal of a cell state form “0” to “1”.
Can you erase a NAND Flash IC?
Yes, you can.
A NAND Flash IC allows the erasure of data and the subsequent writing of new data into it. Erasure in a NAND Flash IC occurs in blocks.
An erase operation in a NAND Flash IC involves the conversion of all the bits in a block to a “1”. This is enabled by the use of internal circuitry to apply a charge of high negative voltage.
The control gate is connected to ground and the high voltage applied to the p-substrate.
This charge forces the electrons to flee the floating gate due to the effect of Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling.
The erase procedure for a NAND Flash IC has a long latency than that of the read or write process.
What is the Write Process for NAND Flash IC?
You find that unlike the erasure process, you can write a single bit on a NAND Flash IC.
Similarly, to the EEPROM IC, there are several control signals useful in the write and read operations.
The signals are as follows.
- The Chip Enable (CE): All operations on a NAND Flash IC require the CE to be set at “low”.
- The Write Enable (WE): You use the WE to input the NAND Flash IC.
- The Read Enable (RE): This signal is responsible for output from the NAND Flash IC.
- The Command Latch Enable (CLE): This signal initiates instructions to the command register when set at “high”.
- The Address Latch Enable (ALE): This signal sets in motion the transfer of addresses to the address register.
Receipt of a Program Page command leads to the input register to convert all the bits to a logic “1”.
This way, you can write to only the specific byte locations that you desire.
The command latch enable and address latch enable are both activated describing the location of the data to be written.
This is followed by programming of the data to the register.
The programming operation is commenced upon writing all the desired data.
The latency of the programming event is a couple of microseconds.
You need to make a status check to verify the realization of the operational objective.
How is Data Read from a NAND Flash IC?
NAND Flash Structure
You find the read procedure entails the following steps.
The Chip Enable is set low and a Command Latch Enable at high.
The Address Latch Enable is activated and the address locations to be read out identified.
The Read Enable permits the output of the data after exhaustion of the read transfer time and subsequent deposit at the register.
Data is outputted following the address specification.
What is the difference between a NAND and NOR Flash IC?
A NOR Flash IC is a non-volatile storage type differing with the NAND Flash IC on purpose and architecture only.
NOR logic Gate
The NOR gate is a pairing of NOT/OR. An inverter succeeds the OR gate in its configuration. Here, two FALSE value inputs, produces only a TRUE value.
When the input pairing is TRUE, the output value is FALSE.
You find many differences between the NAND Flash IC and the NOR Flash IC. For a start you find they use different logic approaches in their mode of operation.
While the NAND Flash IC uses NAND logic gates, the NOR Flash IC uses the NOR Boolean operator.
With a NAND Flash IC, you erase data in blocks. In a NOR Flash IC, data erasure is carried out at the byte level.
This way, you can only achieve erasure of a part of a whole data block in a NOR Flash IC. Partial erasure of data blocks is impossible in NAND Flash ICs.
Additionally, you find the NAND Flash IC provides faster write and erase speeds by manipulating data at the block level.
The NOR Flash IC provides faster read performance due to its random access of data at the byte level.
The NAND Flash IC also offers more memory density at marginally lower cost over the NOR Flash IC.
However, NOR Flash IC is mostly used for code storage whereas NAND Flash IC is typically employed for mass storage.
A NAND Flash IC cannot be used to replace a RAM chip whereas a NAND Flash IC can.
This is because; a NAND Flash IC accesses data sequentially and not randomly as in RAM chips.
In comparison, a NOR Flash IC can access data randomly and at the byte level offering a suitable replacement.
Does BIOS use NAND Flash IC?
BIOS is short for Basic Input/Output System.
It is a ROM chip located on a computer’s circuit board containing instructions for the boot procedure of a computer.
A Basic Output/Input System requires data to be retained even in the absence of power.
As such, a NAND Flash IC can be used for BIOS.
In this way, as a Flash BIOS, the data settings in it can be modified.
BIOS chips of old could only be replaced.
Using a NAND Flash IC-based BIOS can provide alteration of the content without removing the chip from the mainboard.
Is NAND Flash IC non-volatile?
Yes, it is.
Non-volatile memory is storage that retains or holds its stored data in the event power is interrupted.
A NAND Flash IC can retain its data in the event of a power cut.
Compare the DRAM IC and NAND Flash IC?
You find various aspects of dissimilarity between a DRAM IC and a NAND Flash IC.
A Dynamic RAM IC is a type of random access memory chip that stores volatile data in memory cells.
It stores a single bit of data in each memory cell and requires constant refreshing to retain the data.
The dynamic RAM IC is a volatile memory chip whereas the NAND Flash IC is of a non-volatile form.
This means while you will lose any data stored in a DRAM IC cell on cutting power. In the case of a NAND Flash IC, you will retain the data already stored.
The dynamic RAM IC operates at faster speeds than the NAND Flash IC.
This attributes to its use as a computer main memory. T
he NAND Flash IC is typically implemented in devices for secondary storage.
The erasure process in a DRAM IC takes place at the bit level.
This is unlike a NAND Flash IC which requires the erasure of blocks of data at a time.
This way NAND Flash ICs wear out faster.
DRAM ICs are costlier than NAND FLASH ICs.
DRAM ICs are used as computer main memory due to their faster speeds.
What are the Advantages of the NAND Flash IC?
NAND Flash IC
You find the NAND Flash IC useful in the following ways:
- The NAND Flash IC is cost-effective at a byte level in comparison with other memory ICs.
- NAND Flash ICs have high storage capacity considering their small size.
- You experience faster read and write times in NAND Flash ICs.
- You benefit from the large storage density available in NAND Flash ICs.
- NAND Flash ICs consume less power due to the absence of movable parts.
- NAND Flash ICs are durable as they are less prone to damage.
- You can replace a worn-out NAND Flash IC.
What are the Features of a NAND Flash IC?
You will identify the following as some of the features to look out for on a NAND Flash IC.
- The NAND Flash IC’s memory density.
- The write endurance of the chip.
- The voltage requirements for operation of the Flash IC.
- The data retention period provided for the memory chip.
- The options provided concerning bus width.
- The working temperature range of the NAND Flash IC.
- The package type provided.
- Provision of write protection.
What are the Disadvantages of the NAND Flash IC?
NAND Flash Chips
The following are some limitations you will encounter while using NAND Flash ICs:
- NAND Flash ICs fail after performing write and erase cycles over time.
- Many NAND Flash ICs lack a mechanism for write-protection.
- NAND Flash ICs are corruptible leading to loss of data stored in them.
Is NAND Flash IC Fast?
In comparison with memory chips such as the EEPROM IC, the NAND Flash IC provides faster read and write times.
However, the NAND Flash IC is not as fast as the DRAM IC or the SRAM IC.
Is NAND Flash IC used as Primary or Secondary Storage?
It all depends on the application of the NAND Flash IC.
The NAND Flash IC is utilized in secondary storage devices such as the USB and the Solid State Drive. This is because of its impressive performance speed and nom-volatility.
You will also find NAND Flash ICs in integrated into embedded multimedia cards.
In this instance, the cards function as the primary storage for the host devices such as notebooks and smartphones.
What is a Sector in a NAND Flash IC?
The NAND Flash IC has a memory organization of blocks which are divided into pages.
A page is thereafter composed of sectors making the sector the smallest logical unit.
While data is erased as blocks in a NAND Flash IC, it is written at the page level.
A page is accessed and addressed at sector level depending on the number of sectors contained in a page.
Does an SD Card use NAND or NOR Flash IC?
The Secure Digital Card is a miniature storage device that utilizes flash memory.
An SD Card uses a NAND Flash IC for its storage.
This is due to the NAND Flash IC’s advantage of the speed and write/erase performance over the NOR Flash IC.
Can NAND Flash IC be used as RAM?
You find that the NAND Flash IC cannot be used like RAM for the following reasons:
In a NAND FLASH IC, data is deleted as a block.
This results in the deletion of everything even when only a portion of the data was to be altered.
However, a RAM allows for the alteration of data at the bit level.
With a NAND Flash IC, data can only be accessed in a sequential pattern.
This means random access of data as observed with the RAM is not possible with the NAND Flash IC.
A RAM chip has faster speeds of operation than a NAND Flash IC.
With a RAM, you can access data randomly and retrieve it faster.
A NAND Flash IC is slower having to access data in a defined order.
What is the Capacity of a NAND Flash IC?
The storage capacity of a NAND Flash IC is not fixed at a discrete figure. You will find NAND Flash ICs with varied storage capacities.
Some NAND Flash ICs have small storage capacities in the range of megabytes.
Others have large data storage capacities in the range of gigabytes.
What is 3D NAND Flash IC?
3D NAND Flash Memory
3D NAND Flash IC is a novel type of NAND Flash.
It allows the stacking of individual chips in three dimensions to increase its storage capacity without compromising on its size.
This configuration allows the increase of regular NAND Flash IC’s density while not increasing the cost per bit.
3D NAND Flash IC provides an improved write performance over the 2D type not forgetting reliability.
The chips stacked in 3D NAND Flash are typically multi-level cells.
Why is the NAND Flash IC used in Embedded Systems?
The NAND Flash IC can hold the data it has stored in the event power is interrupted. Additionally, it exhibits fast speeds and access times while consuming little power.
These features provide the NAND Flash IC with the ability to function within an embedded system.
However, a NAND Flash IC is erased in blocks whereas data is written into it at the page level.
A page is a constituent of a block and as such, a single block is made of several pages.
Accessing data in a NAND Flash IC is sequential and not random as exhibited by RAM chips.
To allow elaborate performance in an embedded system, a NAND Flash IC is paired with a controller.
The controller guides access to the data blocks freeing up the host device’s processor to perform other functions.
How long can a NAND Flash IC Last?
A NAND Flash IC’s life is dependent on its write endurance.
A NAND Flash IC has a determinate number of write/erase cycles it could handle before wearing out.
Write endurance is the ability of a chip to withstand prolonged write procedures following erasure.
Many developers provide a cycle count from thousands upward to even a million.
A NAND Flash IC can, however, be replaced with a compatible mate.
How many times can a NAND Flash IC be Rewritten?
A NAND Flash IC can be rewritten many times.
The number of times you can rewrite a NAND Flash IC depends on the particular chip’s write-erase cycles.
A NAND Flash IC rated for a thousand cycles can be rewritten for about a thousand times.
The write/erase procedure eventually wears out the NAND Flash IC.
Can a Magnet Erase a NAND Flash IC?
No, it cannot.
A NAND Flash IC cannot be affected by magnetic fields.
This is because its storage process does not involve the use of magnetic fields.
Additionally, components of the NAND Flash ICs memory cells do not exhibit magnetic properties.
Are NAND Flash ICs Safe for Long Term Storage?
A NAND Flash IC can store data for about ten years under normal working conditions.
Since it utilizes charge to store data, a NAND Flash IC is prone to losing the charge by leakage over time.
The rate of charge loss is nonetheless affected by external conditions such as temperature and radiation levels.
An increase in such factors increases the loss of charge. This eventually truncates NAND Flash ICs longevity.
Additionally, sustained write/erase operations wear out the NAND Flash chip reducing its lifespan.
What Packaging is used for NAND Flash IC?
The package used for a NAND Flash IC is dependent on several factors. I
ts pin count, size and number of balls required in case of a ball grid array.
You will find the following package used for the NAND Flash IC.
· Thin Small Outline Package (TSOP)
This is a type of surface-mount package for integrated memory circuits.
They are characterized by their tight lead spacing and low profile.
Their use is founded on their high pin count and reduced volume.
· Ball Grid Array
This is another surface mount package that does away with the leads. It is characterized by a configuration of minute solder balls that provide a connection to the PCB.
A BGA provides a higher density while utilizing minimal space on a PCB.
It also offers decreased thermal resistance between the circuit board and packages while providing enhanced electrical conductivity.
We hope you found this guide to be useful.
In case you have more questions on the NAND Flash IC Rantle team is here to help.