NOR Flash Distributor in China
- High-speed SPI-compatible bus interface.
- Enable double or quadruple the transfer bandwidth for READ and PROGRAM operations.
- Densities from 512K-bit to 512M-bit, small erasable sectors.
- Features a write buffer that allows a maximum of 32 words/64 bytes to be programmed in one operation.
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Reliable NOR Flash Supplier - Rantle East Electronic
RANTLE NOR Flash provides a high-speed SPI-compatible bus interface, execute-in-place functionality, advance write protection mechanisms, and extended address access. RANTLE NOR Flash has an innovative, high-performance, dual and quad input/output commands enable double or quadruple the transfer bandwidth for READ and PROGRAM operations.
RANTLE NOR Flash features the popular Serial Peripheral Interface, densities from 512K-bit to 512M-bit, small erasable sectors. RANTLE NOR Flash supports Dual-SPI effectively doubling standard SPI clock rates. It is a superset of the 25X family with Dual -I/O and Quad-I/O SPI for even higher performance.
Additionally, RANTLE NOR Flash offer the new Quad Peripheral Interface (QPI) supporting true Quad Commands for improved XIP performance and simpler controller circuitry. RANTLE NOR Flash IC also supports ultra-small for, which is ideal for space constrained mobile and handheld applications.
RANTLE NOR Flash is more than eight times the performance of ordinary serial flash and even surpasses asynchronous Parallel Flash memories while using fewer pins and less space. It provides fast page access time of 20ns with a corresponding random-access time as fast as 70ns. This device features a write buffer that allows a maximum of 32 words/64 bytes to be programmed in one operation.
RANTLE NOR Flash helps in faster effective programming time than standard programming algorithms. RANTLE NOR Flash is ideal for embedded applications that require higher density, better performance and low power consumption.
RANTLE East Electronic is a full-service independent wholesale distributor of electronic components. We stock an extensive range of components and also offer a free component sourcing service for our customers.
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NOR Flash IC: The Ultimate FAQ Guide
In this guide, you’re going to learn everything about NOR Flash IC.
Whether you want to learn more about the working principle, classification criteria, components, standards, or packaging, they are all here.
So, let get started:
- What is a NOR Flash IC?
- What does the Acronym NOR mean?
- Is a NOR Flash IC non-volatile?
- How does a NOR Flash IC work?
- What are the types of NOR Flash IC?
- Where can you use NOR Flash IC?
- How can you Test NOR Flash IC?
- What are the Components of a NOR Flash IC?
- How do you Erase a NOR Flash IC?
- How do you Input Data on a NOR Flash IC?
- How is Data Read from a NOR Flash IC?
- Compare a NAND and NOR Flash IC?
- What are the Benefits of using a NOR Flash IC?
- What are some of the Features of a NOR Flash IC?
- What Limitations arise in using the NOR Flash IC?
- What are some of the Standards for a NOR Flash IC?
- How much Data can a NOR Flash IC hold?
- What Packaging is used for NOR Flash IC?
What is a NOR Flash IC?
A NOR Flash IC is a non-volatile flash storage type.
The only difference with NOR Flash IC and NAND Flash IC is based on application and architecture.
The NOR Flash IC provides faster read performance than NAND type, enabling full access to the address and data bus.
The NOR Flash IC is preferred in code execution due to its function of random access.
NOR Flash IC
What does the Acronym NOR mean?
A NOR gate is a logic gate pairing of the NOT logic gate and the OR logic gate.
In this gate formation, an inverter succeeds the OR gate in its configuration.
Here, two FALSE value inputs produce only a TRUE value. When the input pairing is TRUE, the output value is FALSE.
NOR Logic Gate
Is a NOR Flash IC non-volatile?
Yes, it is.
Non-volatile memory refers to a memory type where data can be preserved whenever power is on or off.
Volatile memory contrasts non-volatile memory by losing stored data when the power supply is cut.
How does a NOR Flash IC work?
Memory cells in a NOR Flash IC are configured to connect to both the source line and bit line individually.
This connection corresponds to that of a NOR logic gate. The memory cells are arrays of floating gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors.
To field-effect transistors encompass terminal electrodes for source and drain, and additionally a floating and control gate.
A conductive channel separates the drain and source terminals.
The floating gate is separated from the control gate by a thin dielectric film.
An oxide layer of the insulating property also surrounds the floating gate.
When electrons are trapped sat the floating gate, they constitute stored data value.
During the reading process, a voltage is applied to the control gate. This voltage should be low enough to maintain the charge level at the floating gate.
However, it should be high enough to be easily differentiated from an uncharged floating gate.
Movement of electrons through the oxide layer is through hot-electron injection.
These electrons are deciphered as binary values.
When several values from other cells are combined, they represent the data stored in the memory chip.
An electron presence is designated the binary number “0”.
This signifies the storage of a single bit. Otherwise, it is a binary “1” meaning no input. Where more than one bit is stored in a cell, the charge levels are patterned in a bit formation.
What are the types of NOR Flash IC?
There are two types of NOR FLASH IC that you can find. The parallel NOR Flash IC and the serial NOR Flash IC.
· The Serial NOR Flash IC
Serial NOR Flash
The serial NOR Flash IC is characterized by its low requirement of connections to connect it to the main circuit board.
This limited connection count makes it cheaper to produce serial NOR Flash IC than the parallel type.
You find a serial NOR Flash IC has memory strata of pages and sectors. Several pages make a sector.
While data can be written at the page level, erasure can take place only at the sector level. Besides, the serial NOR Flash IC is incapable of random access to memory data.
Serial NOR Flash IC can also be categorized into buffered and non-buffered.
A buffered serial NOR Flash IC integrates the use of a buffer in its design.
This way, the buffer can be used to read and modify a page of data before writing it back to the serial memory.
For a non-buffered serial NOR Flash IC, memory data can only be read and modified extraneously before inputting into the chip.
This way, you find the non-buffered serial NOR Flash has lower write speeds than the buffered serial NOR Flash IC.
· The Parallel NOR Flash IC
Parallel NOR Flash Memory
You find the parallel NOR Flash IC able to carry out random access at the byte level.
This is similar to how the processor accesses the main computer memory.
As such, you can replace a DRAM IC, for instance, with a parallel NOR Flash IC.
While you can read a single byte of data form a parallel NOR Flash IC, you can only write at the block level.
This explains why the writing process for a parallel NOR Flash IC is prolonged.
Also, the interface to a parallel NOR Flash IC corresponds to that of an SRAM IC with a similar bus system.
Besides, the interfacing of a parallel Flash IC allows the whole storage locations connected to an address pin.
This allows each stored byte to be accessed.
Again, the parallel NOR Flash IC is available in different capacities with the capacities dependent on the address bus width.
The ability to execute random access at a byte level provides the parallel NOR Flash IC an advantage.
Contrarily, the high pin count inflates its size and, therefore, the space used on a circuit board.
Where can you use NOR Flash IC?
You find that the NOR Flash IC is typically preferred for code execution.
This is due to its fast read speeds and random access capability.
You will also find the application of NOR Flash ICs in the following instances.
- Due to its fast read capabilities, you will find NOR Flash ICs in embedded systems.
- Electronic gadgets such as tablets and smartphones utilize NOR Flash ICs.
- Some Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) chips utilize NOR Flash ICs.
- NOR Flash ICs are implemented in set-top boxes and cellular handsets.
- Photography applications requiring high resolution.
How can you Test NOR Flash IC?
There are various ways to test a NOR Flash IC.
The tests are carried out to examine a particular aspect, such as endurance and data retention, for example.
The following are some tests that are useful in measuring the reliability of a NOR Flash IC.
NOR Flash ICs
· Endurance Test
Endurance is a measure of a chip’s ability to fulfill its manufacturing specs as a function of its total write/erase cycles.
The endurance test is carried out at high-temperature extremes, with continuous data input and removal.
· Extended Data Retention Test
Data retention seeks to establish how long a NOR Flash IC can hold onto its stored data.
This test is carried out at high-temperature heat treatment.
At this temperature, the chip is charged with reverse polarity to that of the default floating gate state.
· Testing the Word Line Program Disturb Fault
This test involves the flashing of a NOR Flash IC before programming the first column. All the cells are then read out, excluding the first column. Another flash procedure is carried out before programming another different column. The first column is then read.
· Testing the Word Line Erase Disturb Fault
This test begins with a flash of the chip, followed by the writing of all the cells. All the cells are read except for those in the last column.
After that, any other column apart from the last one is randomly programmed.
The last column is then read.
The tests for the bit line faults are carried out similarly, but instead of columns, the rows are addressed.
What are the Components of a NOR Flash IC?
NOR Flash Array vs NAND Flash Array
A NOR Flash integrated circuit is composed of memory cells in a MOS floating gate field effect transistor array.
The floating gate MOSFET array is configured to function using NOR Boolean reasoning.
The floating gate transistor is composed of a quadruple set of terminal electrodes.
The source and drain, and the floating and control gate make up the electrode terminals.
A conductive channel separates the drain and source terminals.
A dielectric film separates the control gate and the floating gate.
The floating gate is surrounded by an oxide layer that acts as an insulator.
This insulating layer surrounds the floating gate preventing the charge from escaping while holding data.
How do you Erase a NOR Flash IC?
You find that erasure in a NOR Flash IC is carried out at block level just like with NAND Flash ICs. A single block comprises several sectors, and the block sizes vary with the chip.
Small blocks allow faster erase procedures.
To erase a NOR Flash IC, all the bytes need to be written first.
Writing entails the storage of a “0’ data value.
This is the reason why the erase process in a NOR Flash IC is very slow.
Erasing a NOR Flash IC involves converting all the bits in a block to a “1”.
A NOR Flash ICs internal circuitry is used to apply a charge of high negative voltage on the source terminal.
Additionally, the control gate is grounded.
This voltage application produces an electric field large enough to eject the electrons from the floating gate.
The electrons penetrate the oxide layer around it into the channel through the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect.
The departure of particles from the floating gate translates to a “1” state. This indicates an absence of stored data.
How do you Input Data on a NOR Flash IC?
You program a NOR Flash IC by setting the memory cell to a “0” state.
Usually, a NOR Flash IC contains the data logic value “1” when unchanged.
Whereas the NAND Flash IC uses Fowler-Nordheim tunneling to transfer electrons, the NOR Flash IC uses hot-electron injection.
To write a NOR Flash IC; therefore, the following guidelines are useful.
- A voltage higher than the supply voltage is applied to the control gate.
- This activates the channel allowing electron transfer from the source to the drain. This is especially true for n-type metal-oxide-semiconductors.
- Appropriately high current in the channel causes the excitement of the electrons.
- The active electrons possess sufficient energy to burrow through the insulating oxide layer and into the floating gate. This is referred to as the hot-electron injection.
- When these charges tunnel through the oxide layer, they lose their energy and get trapped at the floating gate. This way, they cannot tunnel back into the channel.
The trapped electrons at the gate signify a presence of data in the binary form “0”.
How is Data Read from a NOR Flash IC?
Data is read from the NOR Flash IC at the byte level.
The whole memory chip can be connected to an address and data bus, allowing access to every memory location.
This ability enables the read performance of the NOR Flash IC to be exceptionally fast.
To carry out a read process, a voltage is applied to the control gate.
This voltage amount should be adequately low to maintain the charge level at the floating gate.
However, it needs to be sufficiently high to differentiate between a floating gate that is charged and not charged.
The floating gate’s charge level determines whether the oxide layer will adopt conducting property or remain insulating.
A high enough charge level allows current to pass through the channel.
This current is detected as binary data.
When this data is amalgamated with the other cells’ binary values, it constitutes the stored information.
What interfaces are used for NOR Flash IC?
There are two primary interfaces you find used for the NOR Flash ICs; the serial interface and the parallel interface.
· Parallel Interface
This interface resembles the SRAM IC’s utilizing corresponding parallel address and data bus. Furthermore, there are signals to help in the various data processes as follows.
- The Chip Enable (CE) is an input signal. Setting it too low selects the memory chip for data transfer with the host controller.
- The Output Enable (OE) is another input signal that controls the impedance of the output signals.
- The Write Enable (WE) is an input signal that provides data transfer directly between the memory chip and the host.
- The Ready/Busy (RY/BY) signal is an output signal that highlights the state of the memory chip. This is, whether it is carrying out an operation or awaiting one.
- The Reset signal is an input signal that controls hardware reset to its stand-by.
- The Write Protect (WP) signal is an input signal that inhibits program and erases processes for a protected sector.
A significant strength of the parallel interface is that it allows random access to data. One limitation, however, is the large chip size due to many signals.
· Serial Peripheral Interface
This interface type was introduced to intervene on the parallel interface’s high signal count.
It is characterized by a reduced signal count making the chip package smaller.
The serial peripheral interface is available in dual and quad features to increase the data output.
You will also find signaling allowing double data rate to increase throughput. Alongside this signal, you also find the following signals.
- The Chip Select (CS): This input signal selects the device for data transfer.
- Serial Clock Signal (SCK): This is an input signal that aligns the commands to the clock.
- Serial Input (SI): This signal identifies the serial input for an interface with a single bit.
- Serial Output (SO): This signal identifies serial output for an interface with a single bit.
- Write Protect (WP): This signal inhibits program and erases processes for a protected sector in the memory chip.
The Serial Peripheral Interface is highly compatible, allowing comfortable migration to up-to-date offerings.
However, unlike the Parallel Interface, random access of data is not possible.
Compare a NAND and NOR Flash IC?
NOR Flash architecture vs NAND Flash architecture
The NAND Flash IC and NOR Flash IC are both types of flash memory.
You find both integrated memory chips utilize an array of MOSFET floating gate transistors as storage.
Otherwise, the cell design of a NOR Flash IC differs from that of the NAND Flash IC.
The NOR Flash IC, the connection between individual memory cells and the source and bit lines, mirrors the NOR gate.
The memory cells in the NAND Flash IC are serially configured to resemble the NAND logic gate.
In a NOR Flash IC, data erasure is carried block-level much like with a NAND Flash IC.
Erasure is slower in a NOR Flash IC, however, due to having to write all the bytes to a “0” state first.
The NAND Flash IC offers more significant memory density at lower cost over the NOR Flash IC. This is due to a larger memory cell size brought about by its cell configuration.
The NOR Flash IC provides very fast read performance due to its random access to data at the byte level.
The NAND Flash IC’s read speed is moderate and less than a NOR FLASH IC.
The NOR Flash IC is mostly used for code storage due to faster read speed and random access ability.
The NAND Flash IC is typically employed for mass storage due to its higher density and faster write and erase performance.
However, the writing process in NOR Flash IC is very slow.
This contrasts with the NAND Flash IC that has a quick write process.
The writing process is slow because it is carried out at the block level. This requires a lot of data to be programmed at once.
Additionally, the erase procedure in a NOR Flash IC takes a long time. Comparatively, deleting in a NAND Flash IC is relatively fast.
This is because before erasing a NOR Flash IC, you need to first write all the bytes with “0” value.
You also find the NOR Flash IC has a high cost per bit.
This is due to the low storage density and large memory cell size. The NAND Flash IC has a low cost per bit, requiring less to store a single bit of data.
What are the Benefits of using a NOR Flash IC?
You attach the following benefits in using a NOR Flash IC:
- In comparison with the NAND Flash IC, the NOR Flash IC has faster reading speeds.
- The NOR Flash IC can access memory in bytes rather than blocks.
- You can access data randomly with a NOR Flash IC.
What are some of the Features of a NOR Flash IC?
There are numerous features to look out for in the selection of NOR Flash ICs.
These attributes assist you in having more knowledge of the memory chip. Some features addressed to the chip include.
- The memory density of the chip, typically given in kilobits.
- The temperature range within which the chip can operate without malfunctioning. This temperature is usually provided in degrees Celsius.
- The supply voltage required to operate the chip expressed in voltage.
- The NOR Flash IC’s access time which is given in nanoseconds.
- The chip package type. This could be a small outline package or a ball grid array.
- The pin count on the chip package.
What Limitations arise in using the NOR Flash IC?
- The NOR Flash IC is relatively expensive in comparison with the NAND Flash IC.
- The NOR Flash ICs are available in lower densities compared to NAND Flash ICs due to a higher cost per bit.
- With a NOR Flash IC, erasing and writing new data takes longer, unlike in a NAND Flash IC.
- During start-up, NOR Flash ICs consume more power compared to NAND Flash ICs.
What are some of the Standards for a NOR Flash IC?
Standards provided for the NOR Flash IC include:
SMD-5962-16208: A standard covering Flash ICs utilizing NOR gate that is low power programmable.
DSCC-V62/14607: This standard is specific to the Serial NOR Flash IC with an SPI-Bus Interface. This, in addition to having multiple I/O and the ability to carry out sub-sector erase procedures.
DESC-DWG-5962-94713: A standard for a CMOS, monolithic silicon NOR Flash Memory IC.
SMD 5962-12204: A standard for NOR Flash IC that is user-configurable, radiation-hardened, and with MOSFET transistors.
DESC-DWG-5962-95557: This standard encompasses the NOR Flash IC as an integrated memory circuit with CMOS and monolithic silicon.
DESC-DWG-5962-94684: A general standard for NOR Flash memory chips with CMOS transistors.
How much Data can a NOR Flash IC hold?
The NOR Flash IC has a low memory density compared to the NAND Flash IC. You find that this is because of the high cost per bit of manufacturing a NOR chip.
Typically, you will stumble upon NOR Flash IC chips with memory capacity ranging from 64 megabits to 2 gigabits.
What Packaging is used for NOR Flash IC?
The NOR Flash IC is available in several package types.
The packages come with different pin counts and are influenced by the nature of the application. Some package types are as follows.
· Small Outline Integrated Circuit package
The SOIC package is surface mount occupying lesser space than the DIP package.
It is quadrangular with the pins placed along the analogous sides.
· Thin Small Outline Package
The TSOP is also mounted on the circuit board surface. It also has a rectangular casing with the spacing between the leads is very small.
· Fine-pitch Ball Grid Array
The FBGA is a ball grid array package with finer sized solder balls. This increases the number of connection points for the chip.
· Plastic Dual In-line Pin Package
The plastic dual in-line pin package is a DIP package of the plastic housing.
A DIP package is rectangular shaped with connection pins positioned along the long sides of the package.
The package is socket-inserted or mounted through a hole on a circuit board.
· Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
The plastic leaded chip carrier is a plastic square/oblong chip package with rounded connecting pins around all the edges.
This package type can be soldered to the main circuit board or mounted on to it or inserted in a socket.
With the information in this guide, you should be able to choose high quality NOR Flash IC.
At Rantle, we design and manufacture high quality and reliable NOR Flash Integrated Circuits.
You can contact us today for the best prices in NOR Flash ICs.